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Table 1 Components of marine resource and environmental management systems on the Northwest Coast

From: Indigenous marine resource management on the Northwest Coast of North America

Component Goal/intent Strategy Archaeological evidence of goal/intent
Harvesting methods • Selection for species and size • Mesh size • Relative abundance of zooarchaeological taxa; size of zooarchaeological taxa
   • Capture method  
   • Timing  
   • Location  
  • Extending harvests • Habitat creation • Holding ponds
Enhancement strategies • Increasing availability/ abundance • Transplanting eggs • None
   • Habitat manipulation & extension • Beaches cleared of stone; intertidal walls
  • Selection for age/size of resource • Return young/small bivalves to beach • Age and size of zooarchaeological taxa
Tenure systems • Limit/control access to resources and harvesting locations • Rights to harvest specific species • Differences in zooarchaeological taxa between sites; rock art marking fishing locales; management features in proximity to settlements
   • Ownership of harvesting locales  
   • Ownership and control of harvesting features  
  • Proscriptions on harvesting • Restricted timing/season • Relative abundance & size of zooarchaeological taxa
   • Limits on catch size  
   • Limits on who can harvest  
World view and social relations • Respect for non-human kin • Do not take more than is needed • Sustained use over millennia
  • Ritual connections to animal world • First food ceremonies (e.g., salmon) • Differential abundances of salmon to other taxa
   • Return remains to water • None
  • Maintenance of kinship ties • Feasting, trading, social events • Extra-local taxa in shell middens