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Table 1 Hierarchies of site information for analyses of functional landscapes

From: Adopting novel ecosystems as suitable rehabilitation alternatives for former mine sites

   Factor   Attribute   Physical property  
Is the abiotic system altered? Geology* 1. Consolidation   
   2. Origin   
   3. Mineralogy   
   4. Texture   
    a. Landform class  
    b. Landform pattern  
   1.Form c. Landform element  
    d. Quantitative attributes i. Relief
     ii. Slope
  Landscape    iii. Texture
    a. Surface i. Erosion
     i. Deposition
   2. Function a. Profile i. pH
     i. EC
     i. nutrient status
     ii. water status
Is the biotic system altered?    a. Height  
   1. Structure b. Cover  
    c. Biomass  
  Vegetation   a. Species richness  
   2. Composition b. Diversity  
    c. Structural class  
   3. Condition   
  Soil biota 1. Abundance   
   2. Diversity   
   1. Abundance   
  Fauna 2. Diversity   
  1. Note: *Geology and biochemistry of the parent material including, e.g., tailings and spoils. From Doley et al. (2012); adapted from Tongway and Ludwig (2011).