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Table 1 Conspectus of plant species in various habitats of Srinagar city

From: Studying the patterns of alien and native floras of some habitats in Srinagar city, Kashmir, India

Name of plant species Family Group Species status in the region Growth form Invasion status Graveyard Grassland Orchards Wastelands
Achillea millefolium L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P In + + +
Aegilops tauschii Cosson Poaceae Monocot Alien A In + + +
Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In +
Ailanthus altissima Sw. Simaroubaceae Dicot Alien T In + + +
Althaea rosea Cav. Malvaceae Dicot Alien B Cs +
Amaranthus caudatus L. Amaranthaceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
Anagalis arvensis L. Primulaceae Dicot Alien A In +
Anchusa ovata Lehm. Boraginaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Anthemis cotula L Asteraceae Dicot Alien B In + + + +
Arctium lappa L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Caryophyllaceae Dicot Alien A In +
Artemisia absinthium L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien Ss In + + + +
Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser Asteraceae Dicot Native P   +
Artemisia tournefortiana Reichb. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A Nt + +
Asparagus filicinus Ham. Liliaceae Monocot Native P   + +
Avena sativa L. Poaceae Monocot Alien A Cs + +
Bellis perennis L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P Nt + +
Bidens cernua L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P Nt +
Bothriochloa ischaemum Keng Poaceae Monocot Alien P In + + +
Brachiaria eruciformis Griseb. Poaceae Monocot Native A   + +
Breea arvensis Less. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   + + + +
Bromus japonicus Thunb. Poaceae Monocot Alien A Nt + + + +
Cannabis sativa L. Cannabiaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Cardamine hirsuta L. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + +
Carex fedia Nees Cyperaceae Monocot Native P   +
Carex notha Kunth. Cyperaceae Monocot Alien B In +
Carpesium abrotanoides L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Carpesium cernuum L. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   + +
Celtis australis L. Ulmaceae Dicot Alien T Nt + +
Cerastium vulgatum L. Caryophyllaceae Dicot Native P   + + +
Ceratocephalus falcatus Pers. Ranunculaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
Chenopodium botrys L. Chenopodiaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + +
Chenopodium hybridum L. Chenopodiaceae Dicot Alien A In
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P In + +
Cirsium falconeri Petrak Asteraceae Dicot Native P   + + + +
Clinopodium umbrosum C. Koch Lamiaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + +
Clinopodium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + +
Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Conyza bonariensis Cronquist Asteraceae Dicot Alien A Cs + + +
Conyza canadensis Cronquist Asteraceae Dicot Alien B In + + + +
Coronopus didymus Sm. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Cotula anthemoides L. Asteraceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Crataegus songarica K. Koch Rosaceae Dicot Alien T Cs + +
Crepis sancta Babc. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Cuscuta europaea L. Cuscutaceae Dicot Native Ph   + +
Cynodon dactylon L. Poaceae Monocot Native P   + + + +
Cynoglossum glochidiatum Wall. ex Benth. Boraginaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Cyperus iria L. Cyperaceae Monocot Alien Aq Nt +
Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae Monocot Alien P In + + + +
Dactylis glomerata L. Poaceae Monocot Alien P In +
Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Daucus carota L. Apiaceae Dicot Alien B In + + +
Delphinium roylei Munz. Ranunculaceae Dicot Native A   +
Descurainia sophia Webb. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Digitaria cruciata A. Camus Poaceae Monocot Native A   +
Echinochloa crus-galli P. Beauv. Poaceae Monocot Alien Aq Nt + +
Echinops cornigerus DC. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   +
Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Equisetaceae Pteridophyte Native P   +
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Equisetaceae Pteridophyte Native P   +
Erodium cicutarium L'Herit. ex Ait. Geraniaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Eryngium billardieri Del. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   + + + +
Eryngium coeruleum M-Bieb. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   + + + +
Euclidium syriacum R. Br. Brassicaceae Dicot Native A   +
Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f. Euphorbiaceae Dicot Native P   +
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Dicot Alien P Cs + +
Fumaria indica H. N. Fumariaceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
Galium aparine L. Rubiaceae Dicot Alien A Cn + + + +
Garhadiolus minutissimus Kitamura Asteraceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Geranium nepalense Sweet Geraniaceae Dicot Native A   + +
Geranium pusillum Burm. f. Geraniaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Geum roylei Bolle Rosaceae Dicot Native P   +
Herniaria hirsuta L. Caryophyllaceae Dicot Native P   +
Hesperis matronalis L. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien B Cn +
Hordeum murinum L. Poaceae Monocot Native A   + + + +
Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + +
Imperata cylindrica P. Beauv. Poaceae Monocot Alien P Nt +
Indigofera heterantha wall. ex Brand. Fabaceae Dicot Native S   +
Ipomoea purpurea Roth. Convolvulaceae Dicot Alien C Nt +
Iris ensata Thunb. Iridaceae Monocot Alien P In + + +
Iris germanica L. Iridaceae Monocot Alien P Nt +
Iris kashmiriana Baker Iridaceae Monocot Native P   +
Kikxia spuria Dum. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Native A   +
Lactuca serriola L. Asteraceae Dicot Native B   + + +
Lamium amplexicaule L. Lamiaceae Dicot Native A   +
Lathyrus aphaca L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Lepidium latifolium L. Brassicaceae Dicot Native P   +
Lespedeza cuneata G. Don. Fabaceae Dicot Native Ss   + +
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P In +
Linaria dalmatica Miller Scrophulariaceae Dicot Alien P Cn +
Lithospermum arvense L. Boraginaceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Lolium perenne L. Poaceae Monocot Alien P Nt + + +
Lolium persicum Boiss. and Hoh. ex Boiss. Poaceae Monocot Native A   +
Lotus corniculatus L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + +
Malcolmia africana R. Br. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Malva mauritiana L. Malvaceae Dicot Alien A Cs +
Malva neglecta Wall. Malvaceae Dicot Alien B Nt + + +
Malva parviflora L. Malvaceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Marrubium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Mazus pumilus Van Steenis Scrophulariaceae Dicot Native A   +
Medicago lupulina L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + +
Medicago minima Grufb. Fabaceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Medicago polymorpha L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Medicago sativa L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien B Nt + +
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae Dicot Alien T Cs +
Melilotus albus Desr. Fabaceae Dicot Native A   +
Melilotus officinalis Pall. Fabaceae Dicot Native B  
Mentha longifolia L. Lamiaceae Dicot Alien P In + +
Morus alba L. Moraceae Dicot Alien T Nt + +
Muehlenbergia duthieana Hack. Poaceae Monocot Native A   +
Myosotis micrantha Pall. ex Lehm. Boraginaceae Dicot Native A   +
Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. Boraginaceae Dicot Native P   + +
Narcissus tazetta L. Amaryllidaceae Monocot Alien P In +
Nepeta cataria L. Lamiaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + +
Oenothera biennis L. Onagraceae Dicot Alien B Nt + +
Oenothera rosea Ait. Onagraceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
Onopordum acanthium L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + +
Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Hyacinthaceae Monocot Alien P Cs +
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + + +
Papaver macrostomum Boiss. & Heut ex Boiss. Papaveraceae Dicot Alien A Cn +
Paspalum paspaloides Scribner Poaceae Monocot Alien A Nt +
Peganum harmala L. Zygophyllaceae Dicot Native P   + +
Phleum alpinum L. Poaceae Monocot Native P   + + +
Phleum paniculatum Huds. Poaceae Monocot Native A   + +
Phragmites australis Trin. Poaceae Monocot Alien P In +
Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Poa angustifolia L. Poaceae Monocot Alien P Nt + + + +
Poa annua L. Poaceae Monocot Alien A In + + + +
Poa bulbosa L. Poaceae Monocot Native A   + + + +
Poa pratensis L. Poaceae Monocot Alien P Nt +
Polygonum heterophyllum Lindman Polygonaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Polygonum hydropiper L. Polygonaceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Polygonum plebejum R. Br. Polygonaceae Dicot Native A   +
Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud. Poaceae Monocot Alien A Nt + +
Populus alba L. Salicaceae Dicot Alien T Nt +
Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + +
Potentilla nepalensis Hk. Rosaceae Dicot Native P   + +
Potentilla reptans L. Rosaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + + +
Potentilla supina L. Rosaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Prunus armeniaca L. Rosaceae Dicot Alien T Cs +
Prunus domestica L. Rosaceae Dicot Alien T Cs + +
Ranunculus arvensis L. Ranunculaceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Ranunculus laetus Wall. ex Hk. f. and T. Ranunculaceae Dicot Alien P In +
Ranunculus muricatus L. Ranunculaceae Dicot Alien A In + +
Robinia pseudoacacia L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien T In + + +
Rorippa islandica Borbas Brassicaceae Dicot Alien Aq Nt + + +
Rorippa sylvestris Besser. Brassicaceae Dicot Native P   + + + +
Rosa brunonii Lindl. Rosaceae Dicot Alien S Nt + +
Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae Dicot Alien C Nt +
Rubus niveus Thunb. non Wall. Rosaceae Dicot Alien S Nt + +
Rubus ulmifolius Schott. Rosaceae Dicot Alien S In + + +
Rumex dentatus L. Polygonaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Polygonaceae Dicot Alien P Nt + + +
Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Bth. Lamiaceae Dicot Native P   + + +
Sanguisorba minor Scop. Rosaceae Dicot Alien P Nt +
Scandix pecten-veneris L. Apiaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + +
Scirpus setaceus L. Cyperaceae Monocot Native P   +
Sclerochloa dura P. Beauv. Poaceae Monocot Native P   +
Scorozonera virgata DC. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   +
Scrophularia lucida Hk. f. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Native P   +
Setaria viridis P. Beauv. Poaceae Monocot Alien A In +
Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In +
Sisymbrium loesellii L. Brassicaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Sisymbrium officinale Scop. Brassicaceae Dicot Native A   + +
Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Sonchus asper Hill Asteraceae Dicot Native A   +
Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Sorghum halepense Pers. Poaceae Monocot Alien P In + +
Stachys floccosa Benth. Lamiaceae Dicot Native P   + +
Stellaria media Cyr. Caryophyllaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Taraxacum officinale Weber Asteraceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Torilis japonica DC. Apiaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + + +
Torilis leptophylla Reichb. f. Apiaceae Dicot Alien A Nt + + +
Tragopogon kashmirianus Gurcharan singh Asteraceae Dicot Native B   + + +
Trifolium pratense L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Trifolium repens L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien A Cs +
Tulipa clusiana DC. Liliaceae Monocot Native P   +
Tulipa lanata E. Regel Liliaceae Monocot Alien P Nt +
Tussilago farfara L. Asteraceae Dicot Native P   +
Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae Dicot Alien P In + + + +
Valerianella eriocarpa Desv. Valerianaceae Dicot Native A   + + +
Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Alien B In + + +
Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Veronica agrestis L. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Alien A Nt +
Veronica persica Poir. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Veronica stewartii Penn. Scrophulariaceae Dicot Native A   + +
Vicia angustifolia L. Fabaceae Dicot Native A   + + + +
Vicia sativa L. Fabaceae Dicot Alien A Cn +
Viola indica Bkr. Violaceae Dicot Native P   +
Vulpia myuros Gmel. Poaceae Monocot Alien A In + + + +
Xanthium spinosum L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In + + + +
Xanthium strumarium L. Asteraceae Dicot Alien A In + + +
  1. Growth form: A, annual herb; B, biennial herb; P, perennial herb; Ss, sub-shrub; S, shrub; T, tree; Aq, aquatics; C, climber; L, liana; Ps, parasitic herb. Invasion status: Cs, casual aliens; Cn, casual or naturalised aliens; Nt, naturalised aliens; In, invasive aliens; (+) presence of a species; (−) absence of a species.