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Table 4 Spatial and temporal variations in the physicochemical parameters of water in Wular Lake

From: Influence of land use/land cover on the water chemistry of Wular Lake in Kashmir Himalaya (India)

Parameters Seasons Site I Site II Site III Site IV Site V Site VI
Water temperature (°C) Spring 11.3 14 15.7 13.7 12 10.7
Summer 19.8 21.5 22.3 21 20.5 19.3
Autumn 14.3 17 14.3 13.3 12.7 11.7
Winter 4.8 5.7 6 5.4 5 4.5
pH Spring 7.9 7.9 7.9 8 7.9 8
Summer 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.3
Autumn 8.1 8.1 7.9 8.2 8.1 8
Winter 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.1
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Spring 8.1 8.5 8.6 7.8 8.5 7.5
Summer 6.3 6.3 5.9 6.9 6.6 5.8
Autumn 9.1 7.3 7.4 8.3 7.5 7.6
Winter 9.4 8.3 8 7.6 7.5 7.8
Chloride (mg/l) Spring 25.7 18.3 29.7 17.7 16.3 21.3
Summer 23.7 21 25 17 14.7 16.3
Autumn 13 14.3 16.3 13 16 15.7
Winter 11 13.7 13 9 13.7 14.7
Free carbon dioxide (mg/l) Spring 11.3 9 9.3 10.7 8.7 7
Summer 11.7 8.7 8 8 12.7 7
Autumn 15 14 18.3 17 13 11
Winter 11.7 21 22.7 24 22.3 19.7
Total alkalinity (mg/l) Spring 120.7 141.3 140.7 110.3 118.7 135
Summer 30 60.7 65.3 50 34.3 41.3
Autumn 107.3 101.3 140 149 136.7 150.7
Winter 154.3 167 155 166 151.3 151
Ammoniacal nitrogen (μg/l) Spring 126.7 142.7 133.3 123 162.7 164
Summer 109 94 128.3 119 86.7 71.3
Autumn 127 131 163.3 165 155 150
Winter 144.3 154.3 170.3 176 163.3 135
Nitrate nitrogen (μg/l) Spring 216.7 228.3 236.7 222.7 203.3 203.3
Summer 180.7 184.7 197.3 193.3 194.3 176.7
Autumn 223.3 221.7 225.7 237.7 238.3 215
Winter 263.3 270.3 284.7 287.3 304 290.7
Orthophosphate (μg/l) Spring 28 31.3 33 34.3 30.3 31.03
Summer 19.3 21.3 26.3 25.7 21.7 23
Autumn 34.3 36 39.3 37 29.3 28
Winter 45 50.3 52.7 50.3 43.7 42.3
Total phosphate (μg/l) Spring 160 190 203 180 157.7 148
Summer 130 148.3 165 136.7 133.3 128.3
Autumn 153.3 178.3 198.3 165 183.3 165
Winter 216.7 223.3 220 208.3 193.3 181.7