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Table 3 Estimated annual willingness to accept pay and cost to restore natural ecosystem services per 1 acre (1US$ = 100Kshs.)

From: Estimating farmers’ stated willingness to accept pay for ecosystem services: case of Lake Naivasha watershed Payment for Ecosystem Services scheme-Kenya

Variable description Statistic
Estimated WTA (Kshs.) Min. Max. Mean Std. Error
 WTA to conserve 1 acrea 0.00 50,000.00 21,902.50 778.06
 WTA to rehabilitate Riparian Zones 1000.00 40,000.00 9125.00 427.08
 WTA for grass strips 1000.00 20,000.00 8835.50 307.75
 WTA for terracing 2500.00 55,000.00 16,534.00 719.62
 WTA contour cropping 2000.00 45,000.00 11,755.50 475.35
 WTA for agro-forestry 1500.00 35,000.00 9821.50 408.91
 WTA for clean improved seed 1200.00 65,000.00 14,020.50 644.78
 WTA for fallowingb 5000.00 45,000.00 21,847.50 723.51
 WTA for crop rotation 1500.00 85,000.00 9663.50 503.56
 WTA for reduction in agrochemical use 1500.00   9707.00 644.09
Estimated cost (Kshs.) to restore Ecosystem services on 1 acre without PES
 Control soil erosion 1000.00 100,000.00 12,965.00 936.19
 Improve soil fertility 1000.00 100,000.00 11,815.00 786.06
 Control flooding 1000.00 90,000.00 11,215.00 569.99
 Control pests and diseases 1000.00 15,000.00 3801.00 164.31
  1. aLand for conservation only with agricultural practices restricted to activities like grazing
  2. bRestricted agricultural activities—no ploughing and limited activities like grazing allowed