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Table 2 Ecological ranges (from 5 percentile, p5, to 95 percentile, p95) of the abiotic soil parameters for the abiotic response per ecosystem. Given are the median values of the p5 and p95 of the pH-H2O, \( {\mathrm{NO}}_3^{-} \) content (in mg NO3 kg−1) and mean spring water level (MSW, cm below surface) for the selected species

From: Modelling impacts of acid deposition and groundwater level on habitat quality and plant species diversity

Ecosystem Species typea pH-H2Ob NO3 b MSW
   mg kg−1 soil Centimeter below surface
   p5 p95 p5 p95 p5 p95
Semi-natural grassland T 5.2 7.4 0.6 8.0 −3 63
  C 4.3 6.8 1.2 38 13 98
Heathland T 3.8 5.5 0.0 1.0 −21 48
  C 2.8 5.4 0.2 34 5 108
Forest T 4.5 6.2 0.5 36 22 98
  C 3.3 6.0 0.6 38 22 110
  1. a T target, C competing
  2. bIn the biodiversity indicator, the pH is expressed as pH-H2O and the NO3 concentration as NO3 content in mg kg−1 soil. The SMART2 results on pH and NO3 l−1 concentration in the soil solution were converted to pH-H2O and NO3 content in mg NO3 kg−1 soil (see text)