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Table 2 Effect of tree species, canopy cover, soil depth, and their interactions on life-forms in the soil seed banks, with the statistical results of GLM (F, P, R 2adjusted values)

From: Tree species determine soil seed bank composition and its similarity with understory vegetation in a semi-arid African savanna

  Means ± 95% C.I.
  Annual grass Perennial grass Total grass Herbaceous forbs Woody species
Acacia robusta
 Inside canopy
 0–5 cm 4.5 ± 0.87 2.25 ± 0.5 6.75 ± 0.8 4.50 ± 0.9 1.25 ± 0.3
 5–10 cm 2.75 ± 1.11 1.25 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 1.0 2.75 ± 0.48 0.75 ± 0.25
 Outside canopy
 0–5 cm 4.5 ± 0.65 2.25 ± 0.3 6.75 ± 0.5 4.25 ± 0.25 0.5 ± 0.3
 5–10 cm 1.75 ± 0.9 1.25 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.8 2.75 ± 0.48 0
Balanites aegyptiaca
 Inside canopy
 0–5 cm 3.25 ± 0.48 3.0 ± 0.41 6.25 ± 0.8 5.75 ± 1.44 1.0 ± 0.41
 5–10 cm 1.75 ± 0.48 1.25 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.5 0
 Outside canopy
 0–5 cm 6.75 ± 0.75 2.5 ± 0.3 9.25 ± 0.9 2.75 ± 0.9 0
 5–10 cm 2.5 ± 0.86 1.75 ± 0.3 4.25 ± 0.9 1.75 ± 0.48 0
Ziziphus spina-Christi
 Inside canopy
 0–5 cm 5.25 ± 0.47 2.0 ± 0.71 7.25 ± 1.1 6.75 ± 0.75 1.25 ± 0.3
 5–10 cm 5.5 ± 0.29 1.75 ± 0.3 7.25 ± 0.3 7.5 ± 0.866 1.25 ± 0.3
 Outside canopy
 0–5 cm 4.0 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.96 5.5 ± 1.7 3.25 ± 0.9 0.25 ± 0.3
 5–10 cm 4.25 ± 0.6 0.25 ± 0.3 4.5 ± 0.6 2.75 ± 0.5 0
 Tree species (TS)
F(df = 2, 36) 4.260 1.850 1.230 6.420 4.780
P 0.023 0.183 0.303 0.004 0.014
 Canopy cover (CC)
F(df = 1, 36) 0.090 3.120 0.160 18.580 40.110
P 0.766 0.057 0.692 <0.0001 <0.0001
 Soil depth (SD)
F(df = 1, 36) 15.160 16.620 25.390 9.990 9.000
P 0.0004 0.0002 <0.0001 0.003 0.005
 TS × CC
F(df = 2, 36) 6.01 1.85 5.96 8.92 2.11
P 0.006 0.173 0.006 0.001 0.012
 TS × SD
F(df = 2, 36) 5.23 0.35 4.39 2.97 1.00
P 0.010 0.710 0.020 0.064 0.378
 CC × SD
F(df = 1, 36) 2.24 0.00 1.44 0.01 1.00
P 0.143 1.000 0.238 0.924 0.324
 TS × CC × SD
F(df = 2, 36) 0.93 1.38 0.06 1.58 2.33
P 0.405 0.263 0.944 0.220 0.112
 Adjusted R 2 0.560 0.430 0.580 0.630 0.620