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Table 4 List of species and emerged seed density (n/m2) in the soil seed banks under the inside canopy (IC) and outside canopy (OC) of Acacia robusta (AR), Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) and Ziziphus spina-Christi (ZS) at two soil depths (0–5 and 5–10 cm)

From: Tree species determine soil seed bank composition and its similarity with understory vegetation in a semi-arid African savanna

Species name AR BA ZS FG LF
IC OC IC OC IC OC
  0–5 5–10 0–5 5–10 0–5 5–10 0–5 5–10 0–5 5–10 0–5 5–10
Abutilon fruticosum 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Acacia ssp. (seedling) 1 0 1 0 1.5 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 W P
Adhotodas chimperiana 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Alternanthera pugens 3 1 2.5 0 2.3 1 1 0 2 3 0 0 F A
Amaranthus dubius 3 0 1.3 4 3 1 5.5 3 6.3 5 0 1 F A
Amaranthus hypochondriacus 2 3 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Argimon mexican 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 F A
Aristida adscensionsis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 G A
Belpharis ciliaris 15 1 3 14 2 0 12 1 3 20 0 0 G P
Bothriochloa insulpta 0 0 0 0 15 13 15 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Brachiara comate 26.5 0 4 0 1 0 4 4 0 3 5 0 G P
Chenopodium albrosioides 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 F A
Chloris radiate 90 22.5 29.7 21 32.3 40.5 69 41.5 27.3 15.5 3.5 4 G P
Commelina forskaolii 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Conchorus olitorius 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Conyzya bonariensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 F A
Cynodon dactylon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 3.5 0 G P
Cyperus obtusiflorus 1 2 1.75 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 F A
Dactyloctinium aegyptium 0 0 0 15 5 22 12.5 2 28 0 4 5 G A
Digitaria abyssinica 15 0 0 4 2 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Digitaria velutina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 G A
Digitaria verticellata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 G A
Digitaria voltinosa 12 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 25 5 1 G A
Eleusine jaegeri 0 0 1 9 2 6 0 0 12.5 3 0 5 G A
Eleusine indica 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Eragrostis cilianensis 0 0 0 0 4 0 12 3 0 16 0 0 G A
Eragrostis shweinfurthii 39.8 4 7.8 4 11 9 48.5 10.3 27.7 5.5 9.75 8.75 G A
Eragrostis superba 9 10 2 0 17.5 4 14.3 0 15 0 5.3 6 G A
Eragrostis velutina 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Eriochloa nubica 48 13 9.8 7.5 3 0 12.3 3 40.4 11.3 9.33 4.3 G A
Euphorbia hirta 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 F A
Flaveria trinervia 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Galinsoga parviflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 F A
Harpachne schimpri 22.5 29 2 0 0 0 3 6 3.7 6 5.5 6 F A
Heliotropium cinerscens 2 4 1 22.3 12.3 27.3 0 1 3 1.67 3 4.5 F A
Hibiscus micronthus 3 0 1 1 1.5 0 0 0 2 1.5 1 1 F A
Indigofera spicata 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F P
Kalanchoe petitiana 4 0 0 0 0 4 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Lantana camara 3 1.67 1 0 2 0 0 0 2.5 2.8 1 0 W P
Leucas urticifolia 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 F A
Linthonia nutans 70 0 0 0 4 0 12.5 0 10 0 0 0 G P
Nicanderia physalaides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 F A
Orobanche minor 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Oxalis latifolia 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Panicum atrosanguineum 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Parthenium hysterophorus 104.8 29 48 19.3 36 20.3 76.5 16.3 123.4 35.8 25.3 22.8 F A
Setaria superba 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Setaria verticellata 15 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 G A
Sida aculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 F A
Sida spinosa 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Solanum dubius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 F A
Solanum incanum 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Solanum indicum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 F A
Solanum nigrum 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 F A
Solanum somalensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 F P
Sporobolus pyramidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Tagetes minuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 F A
Tetrapogon cenchriforms 0 0 6 0 6 0 0 3 12 0 3 0 G P
Tragus berteronianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 31.7 3 0 0 0 0 G A
Urochloa panicoides 20 6.7 1.5 0 12 16 16 7 12.7 16 2 7 G A
Verbesin aencelioides 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 1.7 0 0 F A
Withania somnifera 4 0 0 0 3.5 4 0 0 2.33 2 2 0 F A
Xanthium spinosum 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 4 F A
Number of species
Grass species 12 8 11 8 16 9 18 11 13 12 11 10
Annual grasses 8 6 7 6 9 7 12 7 8 9 7 9
Perennial grasses 4 2 4 2 7 2 6 4 5 3 4 1
Herbaceous forbs 14 8 12 7 11 6 7 5 15 19 9 7
Woody species seedling 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 1 0
Total 28 17 25 15 29 15 25 16 30 33 21 17
  1. A annuals, P perennials, G grasses, F herbaceous forbs, LF life forms, FG functional groups, W woody species seedlings