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Table 5 List of species in the soil seed banks (SSB, emerged seeds (n/m2)) and understory vegetation (USV, relative abundance (n/m2)) with their functional groups (FG) and life forms (LF) under the inside canopy (IC) and outside canopy (OC) of Acacia robusta (AR), Balanites aegyptiaca (BA), and Ziziphus spina-Christi (ZS) in semi-arid savanna of Ethiopia

From: Tree species determine soil seed bank composition and its similarity with understory vegetation in a semi-arid African savanna

Species name AR BA ZS FG LF
IC   OC   IC   OC   IC   OC  
USV SSB USV SSB USV SSB USV SSB USV SSB USV SSB
Abutilon fruticosum 3 2 1.5 0 2.8 0 2.2 0 1.8 1 1.5 0 F A
Acacia mellifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 W P
Acacia ssp.(seedling) 3 1 2.3 1 2 1.5 1.3 0 1.5 2.5 1 0 W P
Acalypha fruticosum 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Acanthus emines 0 0 0 0 3.7 0 6.5 0 2.2 0 2.3 0 F A
Achyranthes aspera 4.8 0 2.7 0 3.9 0 3 0 5.3 0 3 0 F A
Adhotodas chimperiana 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Agaves isalana 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F P
Aloe megalacantha 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 F P
Althernanthera pugens 3.3 2 4.1 2.5 10.6 2 12.4 1 3.5 2.7 3.1 0 F A
Amaranthus dubius 0 3 2 2 1 2.5 0 5 4.4 5.8 0 1 F A
Amaranthus hypochondriacus 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 5.5 0 0 0 3.5 1 0 0 F A
Argimon mexican 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 F A
Aristida adoensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 6 0 G A
Aristida adscensionsis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 G A
Asystacia schimperi 11.5 0 6.7 0 11.1 0 4.8 0 4.1 0 2.8 0 F A
Balanites ssp. (seedling) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 W P
Belpharis ciliaris 0 8 1 5.8 1 2 1.70 6.5 0 8.7 0 0 G P
Bothriochloa insulpta 20.7 0 7.4 0 0 14 2 15 10 0 14.6 0 G P
Brachiara comate 0 26.5 0 4 0 1 0 4 0 3 0 5 G P
Brachiaria eruciformis 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Chenopodium albrosioides 0 3 0 0 3 1 3 0 0 2.5 1 0 F A
Chloris radiata 30 56.3 5.0 24.7 4.7 36.4 7.3 55.3 14.3 20.6 5.5 3.7 G P
Commelina forskaolii 3 0 0 0 3.3 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Commicarpus verticillatus 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 F A
Conchorus olitorius 5 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 2.3 0 F A
Conyza stricta 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2.9 0 2.3 0 F A
Conyzya bonariensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F A
Cynodon dactylon 44.8 0 24 0 23.3 1 36.1 0 35.2 2 17.8 3.5 G P
Cyperus obtusiflorus 0 1.5 0 1.8 2.8 0 3.3 0 4 2 3.7 0 F A
Dactyloctinium aegyptium 12.6 0 4.5 15 7.9 13.5 6.7 9 15.1 28 5.8 4.5 G A
Digitaria abyssinica 19 15 23.5 4 5 2 0 7 0 0 0 0 G A
Digitaria rivae 21 0 13 0 17.3 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Digitaria velutina 27.9 0 14.5 0 5.6 0 11.5 0 18 8 6.5 0 G A
Digitaria verticellata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 G A
Digitaria voltinosa 65 12 12.5 0 7.7 0 5 7 10.3 25 9 3 G A
Echinochloa colonum 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Eleusine indica 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Eleusine jaegeri 0 0 0 5 3.7 4 0 0 14.3 9.3 0 5 G A
Eragrostis aspera 12.7 20.6 7 5 7.4 5.3 7.9 23.5 15.1 23 10.8 1 G A
Eragrostis cilianensis 17.3 0 8.8 0 15 4 3 7.5 0 16 0 0 G A
Eragrostis racemosa 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Eragrostis shweinfurthii 0 32.6 0 7 0 10.3 0 25.6 0 18.8 0 9.3 G A
Eragrostis superba 30 9.5 3 2 9 13 9.5 14.5 17.2 15 12.5 5.6 G A
Eragrostis velutina 0 0 5 0 15 4 11.5 0 13.8 0 8.5 0 G A
Eriochloa nubica 10 41 5.7 9 5 3 5 10 11.9 25.8 4.2 6.8 G A
Euphorbia hirta 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2.5 0 F A
Flaveria trinervia 0 0 0 0 5 2 2 0 0 0 4 0 F A
Galinsoga parviflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 F A
Glycine wightii 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 W P
Grewia schweinfurthii 2.3 0 1.6 0 2.0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 W P
Harpachne schimpri 0 25.8 0 2 0 0 0 4.5 0 5 0 5.8 G A
Heliotropium cinerscens 1 3 0 17 0 19.8 0 1 1.7 2 2.4 4 F A
Hibiscus esculentus 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Hibiscus hildebrandtii 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1.7 0 F A
Hibiscus micronthus 2.8 3 2.3 1 3 1.5 0 0 0 1.8 0 1 F A
Hyparrhenia rufa 10 0 0 0 2 0 5 0 75 0 0 0 G P
Indigofera hochstetteri 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F P
Indigofera spicata 1 2 2.5 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 1 0 F P
Ipomoea ochracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Kalanchoe petitiana 0 4 1 0 2 4 2.2 2.5 0 0 0 0 F A
Lantana camara 2.1 2.4 1.3 1 3 2 2 0 4.2 2.6 1.7 1 W P
Leucas martinicensis 5.5 0 0 0 4.33 0 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Leucas microphylla 9 0 2.8 0 5.3 0 4.3 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Leucas urticifolia 0 0 1 0 0 12 0 0 0 11 0 0 F A
Linthonia nutans 8.5 70 6 0 7.9 4 7.2 12.5 5 10 5 0 G P
Nicanderia physalaides 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 F A
Ocimum basilicum 2 0 2.8 0 6.2 0 4.6 0 0 0 1.3 0 F A
Ocimum lamifolium 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Opuntia ficus-indica 1 0 1.6 0 2.2 0 2.3 0 0 0 0 0 W P
Orobanche minor 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1.67 0 0 0 F A
Oxalis latifolia 0 0 0 1.7 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 F A
Panicum atrosanguineum 7.2 0 6.7 0 8.1 0 5.5 28 14.4 0 8.8 0 G A
Panicum coloratum 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 G P
Panicum hochstetteri 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Parthenium hysterophorus 34.7 66.9 14.6 35.7 10.5 29.3 11.2 46.4 23.0 79.5 17.2 24 F A
Prosopis juliflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 W P
Salvia schimperi 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F P
Setaria superba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 G A
Setaria verticellata 16.4 8.5 0 0 2 0 4 0 17.9 12 3 0 G A
Sida aculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F A
Sida spinosa 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 F A
Solanum dubius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 F A
Solanumincanum 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 2.7 1 4.7 0 F A
Solanum indicum 3.7 0 1.7 0 0 0 1 0 2 1.5 1.8 0 F A
Solanum nigrum 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 F A
Solanum somalensis 2.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.8 1.5 7 0 F P
Sporobolus pyramidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 G P
Tagetes minuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 F A
Tephrosia interrupta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2.5 0 F P
Tetrapogon cenchriforms 0 0 3 6 3 6 0 3 3 12 6 3 G P
Themeda triandra 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 G P
Tragus berteronianus 13.9 0 9.3 0 7.8 0 14.2 24.5 22.5 0 15.3 0 G A
Tragus racemosus 22.8 0 15.8 0 8.2 0 12.4 0 25 0 7.3 0 G A
Tribulus terrestris 10 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Urochloa nubica 25 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Urochloa panicoides 7.6 10 7.2 1.5 4.3 14 8.3 13 15.4 14.6 8.1 4.5 G A
Urochloa trichopus 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G A
Urticas imensis 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F A
Verbesin aencelioides 3 0 1 0 0 0 1.5 1 3.6 2.3 1 0 F A
Withania somnifera 0 4 0 0 0 3.7 0 0 7.7 2.2 0 2 F A
Xanthium spinosum 3.9 0 3.3 1 0 0 2 0 6.1 1.5 10.4 4 F A
Ziziphus ssp. (seedling) 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 W P
Number of species
Grass species 24 13 23 14 22 17 21 20 20 20 19 14
Annual grasses 16 9 16 10 16 10 14 13 15 11 13 10
Perennial grasses 8 4 7 4 6 7 7 7 5 9 6 4
Herbaceous forbs 27 15 22 12 23 12 24 8 24 23 23 10
Woody species seedlings 5 2 6 2 5 2 8 0 4 2 2 1
Total 56 30 51 28 50 31 53 28 48 45 44 25
  1. A annuals, P perennials, G grasses, F herbaceous forbs, LF life forms, FG functional groups, W woody species seedlings