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Table 4 Variables included in the optimum ordinal regression model for Afar, Ittu, and Kereyu ethnic groups around Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia (n = 180)

From: Perception and attitude of pastoralists on livestock-wildlife interactions around Awash National Park, Ethiopia: implication for biodiversity conservation

Independent variables Coef. (Std. Err.) Negative attitude
dy/dx (Std. Err.)
Positive attitude
dy/dx (Std. Err.)
Distance (3 = reference)
 1 0.4731(0.51) −0.0830(0.09) 0.0786(0.08)
 2 −0.0204(0.50) 0.0036(0.09) −0.0033(0.08)
Ethnic group (3 = reference)
 1 1.3182(0.51)** −0.2074(0.07)*** 0.2413(0.10)**
 2 −0.4974(0.54) 0.0923(0.10) −0.0774(0.08)
Education (4 = reference)
 1 −0.6310(0.68) 0.1252(0.15) −0.0898(0.08)
 2 1.7568(0.97)* −0.1952(0.06)*** 0.3864(0.23)*
 3 −0.0852(0.57) 0.0150(0.10) −0.0140(0.10)
Primary income source 0.3395(0.42) −0.0604(0.07) 0.0556(0.06)
 TLU/household 0.0090(0.00) −0.0016(0.00) 0.0015(0.00)
 Private grazing (y) −0.5272(0.39) 0.0936(0.07) −0.0864(0.06)
 Communal grazing (y) −1.0321 (0.55)* 0.1478(0.06)** −0.2033(0.12)*
 Grazing in ANP (y) 0.4334(0.39) −0.0814(0.08) 0.0667(0.06)
 Any benefit from ANP (y) 0.7961(0.37)** −0.1536(0.08)** 0.1178(0.05)**
 Livestock cause problem to park (y) 0.6266(0.52) −0.1241(0.11) 0.0894(0.06)
 Experience on park management (y) 0.6388(0.49) −0.0990(0.07) 0.1189(0.10)
 Conflict with the park (y) −1.0278(0.50)** 0.1500(0.05)** −0.1999 (0.11)*
  1. Number of obs. = 180
  2. LR χ 2 (16) = 76.62
  3. Prob > χ 2 = 0.000
  4. Log likelihood = −156.34
  5. Pseudo R 2 = 0.197
  6. y yes
  7. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, *** P < 0.01