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Table 3 Multiple linear regression model (standardized coefficients were reported) to predict the perceptions of local people towards the concept of PFM (R 2 = 0.52 (Adj. R 2 = 0.30), df = 19; F = 2.362, overall P = 0.009), and implementation of PFM (R 2 = 0.39 (Adj. R 2 = 0.11), df = 19; F = 1.385, overall P = 0.043) in WWF (+ = a positive change in perceptions and − = a negative change in perceptions)

From: Perceptions and attitudes of local people towards participatory forest management in Tarmaber District of North Shewa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia: the case of Wof-Washa Forests

Variables Perceptions towards the concept of PFM Perceptions towards implementation of PFM
ß t P value ß t P value
Intercept −2.10 −1.31 2.36 2.09
Sex (female = 1and male = 2) 0.15 1.14 0.26 −0.14 −1.0 0.32
Age 0.05 0.04 0.97 −0.16 −0.54 0.59
Levels of education 0.36 2.75a 0.003 −0.18 −0.80 0.43
Family size per household −0.47 −2.20a 0.003 −0.21 −1.08 0.29
Occupation 0.22 1.10 0.28 −0.16 −0.72 0.46
Annual income (ETB) 0.64 2.77a 0.003 0.07 0.36 0.72
Livestock ownership (Yes = 2) −0.14 −0.66 0.52 −0.15 −0.62 0.54
Had enough grazing land (Yes = 2) 0.03 0.17 0.88 0.06 0.33 0.75
Wanted to keep more livestock in the future (Yes = 2) 0.16 1.19 0.24 0.07 0.49 0.66
Had shortage of fodder for livestock (Yes = 2) 0.60 2.87a 0.003 0.14 0.73 0.47
Length of duration of residence in the area (years) 0.29 0.21 0.84 0.23 0.14 0.89
History of settlement 0.42 0.50 0.62 0.10 0.10 0.92
Had the plan to stay in the area in the future 0.14 1.18 0.25 −0.03 −0.22 0.83
Private land ownership (Yes = 2) 0.11 0.29 0.78 0.07 0.20 0.84
Allocated land for woodlot plantation (Yes = 2) −0.01 −0.09 0.93 −0.07 −0.52 0.61
Had shortage of fuelwood (Yes = 2) −0.31 −2.96a 0.003 −0.30 −2.94a 0.003
Benefited due to PFM (Yes = 2) 0.52 4.02a 0.0001 0.52 3.02a 0.002
Knowledge of the respondents on WWF (Yes = 2) 0.15 1.17 0.25 0.04 0.31 0.76
Distance between the edge of the WWF and the residential area of the respondents −0.11 −0.50 0.62 −0.10 −0.38 0.71
Had a tree planting and growing tradition (Yes = 2) 0.07 0.30 0.77 −0.33 −1.33 0.19
  1. aRepresents significance at the 95% confidence level