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Table 4 Multiple linear regression model (standardized coefficients were reported) to predict the perceptions of local people towards the prevalence of problems with the existing PFM system in WWF (R 2 = 0.586 (Adj. R 2 = 0.39), df = 19; F = 3.039, overall P < 0.001) (+ = a positive change in perceptions and − = a negative change in perceptions)

From: Perceptions and attitudes of local people towards participatory forest management in Tarmaber District of North Shewa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia: the case of Wof-Washa Forests

Variables Perceptions towards problems with the existing PFM system
ß t P value
Intercept −1.41 1.28
Sex (female = 1 and male = 2) 0.13 1.09 0.28
Age 3.19 2.75a 0.003
Levels of education −0.17 −0.87 0.39
Family size per household −0.54 −3.02a 0.002
Occupation 0.04 0.19 0.85
Annual income (ETB) −0.25 −1.30 0.20
Livestock ownership (Yes = 2) 0.04 0.23 0.82
Had enough grazing land (Yes = 2) 0.23 1.49 0.14
Wanted to keep more livestock in the future (Yes = 2) −0.78 −0.56 0.58
Had shortage of fodder for livestock (Yes = 2) 0.07 0.38 0.69
Length of duration of residence in the area (years) −3.30 −2.55a 0.003
History of settlement −1.79 −2.32a 0.003
Had the plan to stay in the area in the future 0.22 2.01a 0.003
Private land ownership (Yes = 2) −0.13 −0.38 0.71
Allocated land for woodlot plantation (Yes = 2) 0.45 4.22a 0.000
Had shortage of fuelwood (Yes = 2) −0.21 −1.43 0.16
Benefited due to PFM (Yes = 2) −0.13 −1.08 0.29
Knowledge of the respondents on WWF (Yes = 2) −0.002 −0.02 1.0
Distance between the edge of WWF and the residential area of the respondents 0.28 1.36 0.18
Had a tree planting and growing tradition (Yes = 2) 0.90 4.35a 0.0001
  1. aRepresents significance at the 95% confidence level