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Table 5 Multiple linear regression model (standardized coefficients were reported) to predict the attitudes of local people towards managing forests through participatory approach (R 2 = 0.423 (Adj. R 2 = 0.16), df = 19; F = 1.579, overall P = 0.044), and having the responsibility to protect the WWF (R 2 = 0.535 (Adj. R 2 = 0.32), df = 19; F = 2.475, overall P = 0.006). (+ = a positive change in attitudes and − = a negative change in attitudes)

From: Perceptions and attitudes of local people towards participatory forest management in Tarmaber District of North Shewa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia: the case of Wof-Washa Forests

Variables Attitudes towards managing WWF through participatory approach Attitudes towards having the responsibility to protect WWF
ß t P value ß t P value
Intercept 1.76 1.51 4.85 2.83
Sex (female = 1 and male = 2) −0.15 −1.05 0.30 −0.13 −1.003 0.32
Age 1.32 0.97 0.34 0.007 0.01 1.0
Levels of education 0.07 0.30 0.77 0.33 1.63 0.11
Family size per household 0.26 1.23 0.23 0.16 0.87 0.39
Occupation −0.14 −0.62 0.54 −0.06 −0.27 0.79
Annual income (ETB) −0.64 −2.79a 0.003 0.03 0.19 0.85
Livestock ownership (Yes = 2) −0.06 −0.27 0.79 0.58 2.82a 0.003
Had enough grazing land (Yes = 2) 0.35 2.91a 0.003 −0.17 −1.05 0.30
Wanted to keep more livestock in the future (Yes = 2) −0.02 −0.17 0.87 0.004 0.03 0.98
Had shortage of fodder for livestock (Yes = 2) 0.13 0.61 0.54 −0.54 −2.93a 0.003
Length of duration of residence in the area (years) −1.34 −0.88 0.39 −0.47 −0.34 0.73
History of settlement −0.70 −0.77 0.45 −0.14 −0.17 0.86
Had the plan to stay in the area in the future −0.20 −1.50 0.14 0.46 3.90a 0.0001
Private land ownership (Yes = 2) 0.05 0.13 0.90 −0.28 −0.76 0.45
Allocated land for woodlot plantation (Yes = 2) 0.05 0.39 0.70 −0.32 −2.79a 0.003
Had shortage of fuelwood (Yes = 2) 0.07 0.43 0.67 −0.37 −2.96a 0.003
Benefited due to PFM (Yes = 2) 0.34 2.41a 0.003 0.41 3.26a 0.002
Knowledge of the respondents on WWF (Yes = 2) 0.02 −0.17 0.87 0.04 0.33 0.74
Distance between the edge of the WWF and the residential area of the respondents 0.32 1.28 0.21 0.03 0.12 0.91
Had a tree planting and growing tradition (Yes = 2) 0.19 0.78 0.44 0.34 1.52 0.14
  1. aRepresents significance at the 95% confidence level