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Table 1 Candidate models are grouped into four factor sets and the null model: models with covariates related to local conditions at the site, models containing measures of landscape characteristics across five spatial scales, one model with a combination of local covariates, and models with various combinations of local and landscape-related covariates

From: Landscape and scale-dependent spatial niches of bats foraging above intensively used arable fields

  Model no. Scale [km] Insect Crop Cover [%] Complexity Density  
Abundance Diversity Height [cm] Status Type Vegetation Water Built-up Vegetation [m/ha] Kettle [ha−1] Road [m/ha] Season
Null model 1              
Local 2   (+ +)a           +a
3     +a          +a
4      (+ +)a        +a
Landscape 5–8 0.3–3       (+ + + + + +)a +a
9 5        (+ + +   +)a +a
10 5       (+ +    + +)a +a
Local combined 11   (+ +)a,b +b,c          +a,c
Local and landscape combined 12–15 0.3–3 +b      (+ + + + + +)a,b +a
16 5 +b       (+ + +   +)a,b +a
17 5 +b      (+ +    + +)a,b +a
18–21 0.3–3    +    (+ + + + + +)a,b +a
22 5    +     (+ + +   +)a,b +a
23 5    +    (+ +    + +)a,b +a
24–27 0.3–3 +b   +    (+ + + + + +)a,b +a
28 5 +b   +     (+ + +   +)a,b +a
29 5 +b   +    (+ +    + +)a,b +a
  1. Abbreviations: kettle density of kettle holes (small water bodies), season Julian day, + covariate included in model, + a,b superscript letters indicate interactions: covariates with the same letter interact with each other; the interaction applies to all factors within the brackets