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Table 5 Case studies in other highlands agricultural areas globally

From: Land use change in highland area and its impact on river water quality: a review of case studies in Malaysia

No. Highlands Function Land use change Issues References
1 Manupali watershed, Northern Mindanao, Philippines The Manupali river irrigation system located within elevation range 300–2938 m asl and serve as a freshwater supply for to irrigate lowland rice and non-rice crops. 1973
- Forest, 51%; agriculture, 28%
- Forest, 34%; agriculture, 48%
- Forest, 29%; agriculture, 50%
- Rapid increase in population results in deforestation and intensive farming in the upper slopes
- Soil erosion in Upper Manupali watershed
- Sedimentation of lake, reservoirs that serve as irrigation canal for lowlands, reduce the crop yields
Lantican et al. (2003)
2 Baguio City, Luzon Island Philippines Hill station that has a total land area of 57.49 km2 with elevation 900–1600 m asl. Serve as tourist and agriculture spot. 1988
- Forest, 43%; agriculture, 16%; urban, 18%
- Forest, 26%; agriculture, 14%; urban, 34%
- Forest, 16%; agriculture, 13%; urban, 52%
- The rapid increase in population. In - population in 1918 was 5464, while in 2011 is 301,926 people.
- Twelve times more than its carrying capacity
- Thus increase the demand for housing, wastes, greater need for public services and facilities,
Estoque and Murayama (2011)
3 Upper Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia Upper Citarium Watershed serve as freshwater sources, water reservoir and electricity sources for the capital city of Jakarta. The whole area is 230,802 ha. It is divided into eight subwatershed. 1997
- Forest, 28%; agriculture, 60%; urban, 4%
- Forest, 16%; agriculture, 65%; urban, 9%
- Forest, 11%; agriculture, 66%; urban, 15%
- It is one of the severely threatened watersheds in the world and has less than 40% for Environmental Quality Index.
- Experienced rapid land use and land cover change due to rapid forest conversion into urbanization and intensive cultivation which have degraded the river water quality.
Agaton et al. (2016)
4 Albertine Rift Region, Musanze, Rwanda The study area located within central Albertine Rift Region, Rwanda with a total area of 52,190 ha. Serve as biodiversity richness, ecological services, logging, fuelwood collection, charcoal production, mining, tourism, and have fertile volcanic soils. This region also serves as resettlement of refugees from civil wars. 1987
- Forest, 26%; agriculture, 69%; urban, 3%
- Forest, 28%; agriculture, 55%; urban, 12%
- Forest, 35%; agriculture, 55%; urban, 7%
- Increasing human population estimated 695 persons per square kilometer in Rwanda, give pressure on land demand for settlement and agriculture.
- Increasing of human activities such as fuelwood collection and charcoal making.
- Natural forests converted into cultivated land for tea and coffee plantations. The increase in forest percentage mostly derived from agricultural lands due to afforestation.
Akinyemi (2017)
5 Mae Raem and Mae Sa watershed, Chiang Mai Thailand Forest area in northern Thailand;
- Forest: 116275 km2/69%
- Forest: 89381 km2/47%
- Increasing population and demand for agriculture produce, have increased forest encroachment.
- Forest removal has deteriorated water quality and quantity in Mae Raem and Mae Sa watershed.
- Increasing input of fertilizers and pesticides cause soil erosion problem in that particular highland areas.
Charnsungnern and Tantanasarit (Charnsungnern and Tantanasarit 2017)
6 Chillimo forest, Dendi, Ethiopia Elevation between 2400 and 2900 asla. Serve as biodiversity richness, timber, and freshwater supply for large river including Awash River that used for irrigation of sugar plantation. Total area is 7687 ha 1973
- Forest, 56%; agriculture, 42%; urban, 0.1%
- Forest, 42%; agriculture, 44%; urban: 0.3%
- Forest, 32%; agriculture, 46%; urban, 3%
- Forest, 26%; agriculture, 45%; urban, 4%
- Favorable climate for agriculture, human and animal health compare with lowlands, gave pressure on this highland area
- The forest cover reducing, approximately US$ 3.69 million of ecosystem service values was lost. Ecosystem services including nutrient cycling, provision of raw materials and erosion control.
Tolessa et al. (2017)
  1. aasl above sea level