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Table 1 Heavy metal concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) in Athyrium esculentum (AE), Chromolaena odorata (CO), Lantana camara (LC), and soils for roadside plants and control

From: Heavy metals accumulation in suburban roadside plants of a tropical area (Jengka, Malaysia)

  AE (mg kg−1) CO (mg kg−1) LC (mg kg−1) Soil (mg kg−1) Malaysia Food Regulations (1985) (mg kg−1) FAO/WHO (2016) (mg kg−1)
Roadside
Fe     275.6 ± 0.31 NA NA
 Leaves 545.1 ± 31.3 749.8 ± 10.6 841.6 ± 8.6    
 Stems 322.2 ± 18.8 580.5 ± 13.3 570.2 ± 41.8    
 Roots 265.3 ± 83.7 401.2 ± 30.3 496.5 ± 27.0    
Cu     9.50 ± 0.12 NA NA
 Leaves 18.50 ± 1.83 23.35 ± 2.89 26.85 ± 0.77    
 Stems 10.85 ± 0.77 12.35 ± 1.62 25.10 ± 0.71    
  Roots 17.05 ± 3.32 21.60 ± 1.27 21.65 ± 2.75    
Pb     4.60 ± 0.03 2 0.3
 Leaves 0.26 ± 0.03 0.33 ± 0.06 2.86 ± 0.15    
 Stems 0.33 ± 0.04 0.69 ± 0.07 2.25 ± 0.03    
 Roots 3.79 ± 0.19 2.64 ± 0.43 3.05 ± 0.18    
Cd     0.32 ± 0.01 1 0.2
 Leaves 0.01 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.00 0.09 ± 0.01    
 Stems 0.02 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 0.09 ± 0.01    
 Roots 0.08 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.00    
Control
Fe     355 ± 0.81 NA NA
 Leaves 250 ± 15.1 300 ± 11.1 350 ± 10.4    
 Stems 150 ± 22.8 200 ± 8.5 305 ± 14.5    
 Roots 100 ± 12.5 150 ± 6.7 200 ± 13.6    
Cu     20.0 ± 0.92 NA NA
 Leaves 8.00 ± 0.10 12.00 ± 0.70 16.00 ± 2.2    
 Stems 5.20 ± 0.69 10.00 ± 0.89 14.50 ± 0.90    
 Roots 7.00 ± 0.43 11.70 ± 0.56 14.00 ± 0.15    
Pb     1.80 ± 0.30 2 0.3
 Leaves 0.35 ± 0.02 0.41 ± 0.01 0.80 ± 0.03    
 Stems 0.45 ± 0.03 0.61 ± 0.08 0.50 ± 0.12    
 Roots 0.50 ± 0.11 0.70 ± 0.04 0.80 ± 0.05    
Cd     0.15 ± 0.02 1 0.2
 Leaves 0.005 ± 0.00 0.005 ± 0.01 0.015 ± 0.00    
 Stems 0.005 ± 0.00 0.005 ± 0.00 0.010 ± 0.00    
 Roots 0.02 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.00 0.025 ± 0.01    
  1. NA no available standards