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Table 2 Anthropogenic impact characterization according to the baseline map and the historical distribution areas of apex-predators. Values indicate the average value of ecological integrity indicators and the percentage of each impact class category within the distribution areas for all apex predators in Mexico (*significant at 0.001)

From: A spatial framework for detecting anthropogenic impacts on predator-prey interactions that sustain ecological integrity in Mexico

  Distribution NOM-059 Ecological integrity Ecological degradation Landscape transformation Intact Semi-intact Concern High impact Severe impact Highly severe impact
Leopardus pardalis Neotropical Endangered 0.215 0.261 0.523 32.9% 12.2% 16.0% 18.4% 16.9% 3.6%
Leopardus wieddi Neotropical Endangered 0.212 0.296 0.491 35.5% 12.9% 17.2% 17.6% 13.5% 3.4%
Puma yagouarondi Neotropical Threatened 0.217 0.294 0.488 36.3% 12.1% 16.7% 17.3% 14.5% 3.2%
Panthera onca Neotropical Endangered 0.216 0.272 0.512 49.8% 8.6% 19.5% 12.1% 5.8% 4.3%
Canis latrans Nearctic Non-listed 0.170 0.452 0.378 33.9% 12.4% 15.4% 18.9% 16.1% 3.2%
Canis lupus Nearctic Extinct 0.138 0.466 0.396 53.4% 8.5% 17.8% 10.7% 6.1% 3.5%
Puma concolor Nearctic Non-listed 0.174 0.430 0.395 52.8% 9.7% 15.1% 11.6% 7.6% 3.3%
Lynx rufus Nearctic Non-listed 0.171 0.470 0.358 58.3% 8.9% 15.1% 8.7% 5.7% 3.3%
Ursus americanus Nearctic Endangered 0.159 0.572 0.269 60.9% 4.5% 22.1% 8.3% 3.3% 0.9%
Ursus arctos Nearctic Extinct 0.145 0.575 0.280 63.4% 7.3% 15.8% 9.5% 1.9% 2.1%
All Non-listed    0.172 0.378 0.451 0.483 0.103 0.152 0.131 0.098 0.033
All Extinct    0.142 0.338 0.520 0.584 0.078 0.168 0.101 0.040 0.028
P(T ≤ t)    0.0400 0.3117 0.214 0.1701 0.0710 0.1847 0.2195 0.1122 0.3127
All Non-listed    0.172 0.377 0.172 0.483 0.103 0.152 0.131 0.098 0.033
All Endangered    0.201 0.449 0.350 0.448 0.095 0.187 0.141 0.098 0.030
P(T ≤ t)    0.0665 0.1639 0.0479 0.3671 0.3668 0.0411 0.4014 0.4974 0.4006
All Neotropical predators    0.215 0.281 0.504 38.6% 11.4% 17.3% 16.3% 12.7% 3.6%
All Nearctic predators    0.159 0.494 0.346 53.8% 8.5% 16.9% 11.3% 6.8% 2.7%
P(T ≤ t)    0.0001* 0.0004* 0.0001* 0.0150 0.0403 0.3747 0.0238 0.0528 0.0501