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Table 3 Results of multinomial regression of G. kola farmer’s perceptions of climate change according to some explanatory variables

From: Farmers’ perceptions on cultivation and the impacts of climate change on goods and services provided by Garcinia kola in Nigeria

Covariance Decrease Unchanged
(A) Perception variable = rainfall
 Number of observation 215  
 Residual deviance 230.741  
 AIC 254.741  
 Pseudo R2 0.172  
 Age 2.545 (0.649)*** 2.261 (0.764)***
 Sex 0.955 (0.669)* 0.375 (0.806)
 Marital − 0.612 (0.944) 0.553 (1.051)
 Household_size − 0.222 (0.446) − 0.020 (0.572)
 Educational_level 1.348 (0.399)*** 1.511 (0.584)***
(B) Perception variable = drought
 Number of observation 215  
 Residual deviance 292.163  
 AIC 316.163  
 Pseudo R2 0.089  
 Age − 0.060 (0.501) − 0.536 (0.351)*
 Sex − 0.671 (0.573) 0.044 (0.425)
 Marital 0.864 (0.892) − 0.178 (0.716)
 Household_size 0.313 (0.501) − 0.260 (0.318)
 Educational_level − 1.096 (0.425)*** − 1.138 (0.298)***
(C) Perception variable = flood
 Number of observation 215  
 Residual deviance 279.317  
 AIC 303.317  
 Pseudo R2 0.089  
 Age − 0.019 (0.517) − 0.532 (0.351)*
 Sex 0.463 (0.679) − 0.044 (0.412)
 Marital − 8.187 (66.418) 0.713 (0.582)
 Household_size 0.013 (0.514) − 0.175 (0.320)
 Educational_level − 1.234 (0.448)** − 0.946 (0.296)***
(D) Perception variable = temperature
 Number of observation 215  
 Residual deviance 366.924  
 AIC 390.924  
 Pseudo R2 0.051  
 Age 0.173 (0.356) 0.293 (0.385)
 Sex − 0.041 (0.392) 0.877 (0.493)*
 Marital 0.974 (0.552)** 0.176 (0.847)
 Household_size − 0.526 (0.309)* − 0.238 (0.365)
 Educational_level − 0.059 (0.299) − 0.626 (0.320)**
(E) Perception variable = wind
 Number of observation 215  
 Residual deviance 368.322  
 AIC 392.322  
 Pseudo R2 0.051  
 Age − 0.233 (0.504) − 0.454 (0.291)*
 Sex 0.809 (0.622)* 0.363 (0.344)
 Marital 1.917 (0.770)* 1.029 (0.589)*
 Household_size 0.369 (0.479) 0.428 (0.264)*
 Educational_level − 0.256 (0.461) − 0.556 (0.255)**
  1. ***, **, * Significant at 1,5 and 10% probability level, respectively