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Table 2 Multiple linear regression model to predict the views of local people towards the community forest governance, and the state forest governance in Tehulederi District

From: Views and attitudes of local people towards community versus state forest governance in Tehulederi District, South Wollo, Ethiopia

Variables Views towards the community forest governance Views towards the state forest governance
β t P value β t P value
Intercept − 2.54 − 3.85 1.93 3.04
Sex (female = 1; male = 2) 0.24 1.37 0.273 − 0.72 − 1.92 0.639
Age 0.83 1.93 0.324 − 0.64 − 1.72 0.381
Levels of education 0.27 3.38** 0.001 0.63 3.45** 0.001
Family size per household 0.32 3.34** 0.001 − 0.35 − 2.97** 0.002
Annual income (ETB) − 0.43 − 4.46** 0.001 − 0.38 − 3.32** 0.001
Livestock ownership (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.36 2.86** 0.002 − 0.26 − 3.32** 0.001
Enough grazing land (no = 1; yes = 3) − 0.72 − 1.32 0.263 − 0.43 − 0.72 0.424
Want to keep more livestock than have at present (no = 1; yes = 3) − 0.23 − 2.94** 0.002 − 0.39 − 2.89** 0.002
Shortage of fodder for livestock (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.67 3.15** 0.001 − 0.43 − 2.94** 0.002
Length of local residence in the area (years) 0.34 0.67 0.543 − 0.25 − 1.32 0.253
History of settlement in the area 0.52 0.56 0.589 0.32 0.76 0.458
Plan to stay in the area in the future (no = 1; unsure = 2; yes = 3) 0.65 3.12** 0.001 − 0.45 − 2.97** 0.002
Private land ownership (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.43 1.35 0.363 0.45 0.65 0.451
Land size (ha) 0.11 0.44 0.671 0.42 0.44 0.635
Tree planting and growing tradition (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.42 0.89 0.432 0.18 0.83 0.631
Shortage of fuelwood (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.45 3.19** 0.001 − 0.53 − 2.89** 0.002
Accessibility to forest resources (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.63 3.18** 0.001 0.83 3.29** 0.001
Distance between the edge of the forests and the residential area of the respondents (km) 0.14 1.34 0.236 − 0.38 − 0.82 0.527
Incentives (e.g. seeds, tree seedlings, technical supports, and credits) to plant and grow trees (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.62 3.15** 0.001 0.78 2.96** 0.002
Sufficient market to sell their forest products (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.65 2.95** 0.002 − 0.62 − 1.63 0.113
Enough labour to manage trees/seedlings planted and grown by themselves (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.18 2.94** 0.002 − 0.36 − 0.89 0.351
Knowledge on the presence of traditional bylaws that restrict people and/or livestock from illegally destroying the tree seedlings planted and grown in the study site (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.84 3.17** 0.001 − 0.64 − 2.96** 0.002
  1. Minus sign indicates a negative change in attitudes. Multiple linear regression model: standardized coefficients were reported; ** Significance at the 95% confidence level. Community forest governance: R2 = 0.65 (Adj. R2 = 0.52), df = 21; F = 8.834, overall P < 0.0001. State forest governance: R2 = 0.61 (Adj. R2 = 0.49), df = 21; F = 7.956, overall P < 0.0001