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Table 3 Multiple linear regression model to predict the attitudes of local people towards the community forest governance, and the state forest governance in Tehulederi District

From: Views and attitudes of local people towards community versus state forest governance in Tehulederi District, South Wollo, Ethiopia

Variables Attitudes towards the community forest governance Attitudes towards the state forest governance
β t P value β t P value
Intercept − 3.29 − 2.82 2.67 2.89
Sex (female = 1; male = 2) 0.15 1.14 0.352 − 0.14 − 1.87 0.231
Age 0.24 1.09 0.651 − 0.16 − 1.48 0.432
Levels of education 0.36 2.75** 0.002 0.32 2.96** 0.002
Family size per household 0.47 2.840** 0.002 − 0.21 − 3.08** 0.002
Annual income (ETB) − 0.22 − 3.10** 0.001 − 0.16 − 2.72** 0.002
Livestock ownership (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.64 2.77** 0.002 − 0.07 − 3.36** 0.001
Enough grazing land (no = 1; yes = 3) − 0.14 − 0.66 0.523 − 0.15 − 0.62 0.543
Want to keep more livestock than have at present (no = 1; yes = 3) − 0.03 − 2.86** 0.002 − 0.06 − 3.29** 0.001
Shortage of fodder for livestock (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.16 1.19 0.244 − 0.07 − 0.49 0.665
Length of local residence in the area (years) 0.60 0.27 0.762 − 0.14 − 0.73 0.474
History of settlement in the area 0.29 0.21 0.845 0.23 0.14 0.893
Plan to stay in the area in the future (no = 1; unsure = 2; yes = 3) 0.42 2.92** 0.002 − 0.10 − 3.29** 0.001
Private land ownership (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.14 1.18 0.253 0.09 0.22 0.644
Land size (ha) 0.11 0.29 0.785 0.27 0.23 0.764
Tree planting and growing tradition (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.01 0.69 0.651 0.07 0.65 0.726
Shortage of fuelwood (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.31 2.96** 0.002 − 0.30 − 2.94** 0.002
Accessibility to forest resources (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.52 4.02** 0.0001 0.69 3.12** 0.002
Distance between the edge of the forests and the residential area of the respondents (km) 0.15 1.17 0.254 − 0.04 − 0.31 0.768
Incentives (e.g. seeds, tree seedlings, technical supports, and credits) to plant and grow trees (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.11 2.64** 0.002 0.23 3.38** 0.001
Sufficient market to sell their forest products (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.54 3.30** 0.001 − 0.33 − 1.33 0.199
Enough labour to manage trees/seedlings planted and grown by themselves (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.15 3.17** 0.001 − 0.04 − 0.31 0.768
Knowledge on the presence of traditional bylaws that restrict people and/or livestock from illegally destroying the tree seedlings planted and grown in the study site (no = 1; yes = 3) 0.27 3.30** 0.001 − 0.33 − 3.36** 0.001
  1. Minus sign indicates a negative change in attitudes. Multiple linear regression model: standardized coefficients were reported; **Significance at the 95% confidence level. Community forest governance: R2 = 0.58 (Adj. R2 = 0.47), df = 21; F = 7.934, overall P < 0.0001. State forest governance: R2 = 0.53 (Adj. R2 = 0.42), df = 21; F = 6.858, overall P < 0.0001