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Table 2 Indexed indicators, profiles, and overall LVI for highland, midland, wetland, and lowland AESs

From: Vulnerability analysis of smallholder farmers to climate variability and change: an agro-ecological system-based approach in the Fincha’a sub-basin of the upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia

Profile/ Component Indicators Units Indexed value for each indicator
HL ML WL LL
1. Climate The standard deviation of the average daily maximum temperature by month between 1995 and 2015 Changes over time, °C 0.191 0.182 0.182 0.405
The standard deviation of the average daily minimum temperature by month between 1995 and 2015 Changes over time, °C 0.148 0.109 0.109 0.391
The standard deviation of the average monthly precipitation between 1995 and 2015 Changes over time, mm 0.293 0.269 0.269 0.484
Average number of drought events in the past 20 years Number of events 0.630 0.149 0.183 1.000
Average number of flood events in the past 20 years Number of events 0.359 0.000 1.000 0.755
Profile indexed value   0.324 0.142 0.348 0.607
2. Ecosystem Land suitability for agriculture Index 0.500 0.000 0.500 0.750
Sustainability of land use system Index 1.000 0.000 0.500 0.750
Land with improved soil water conservation techniques Percent 0.263 0.221 0.484 0.210
Irrigation potential Hectare 0.680 0.830 0.580 1.000
Profile indexed value   0.611 0.263 0.516 0.678
3. Agriculture Average annual total production Tons per HH 0.652 0.629 0.742 0.682
Average changes in productivity per hectare Tons per Ha 0.756 0.754 0.667 0.785
The diversity of crop species (Inverse) 1/(# of Crops + 1) 0.533 0.571 0.571 0.615
Profile indexed value   0.647 0.652 0.660 0.694
4. Wealth Average farm size of HH Hectare per HH 0.485 0.480 0.339 0.568
Average number of livestock per HH TLU/HH 0.479 0.432 0.347 0.277
Average Existing loans per HH (Inverse) Birr/HH 0.713 0.794 0.894 0.467
Average non-agricultural income Birr/HH 0.079 0.230 0.010 0.004
Profile indexed value   0.439 0.484 0.397 0.329
5. Technology Households (HHs) who used Insecticide and pesticide Percent 0.040 0.105 0.088 0.174
HHs who used fertilizer Percent 0.895 0.936 0.915 0.853
HHs who used improved seed Percent 0.596 0.651 0.716 0.642
HHs who have irrigation potential Percent 0.316 0.179 0.421 0.080
Profile indexed value   0.462 0.468 0.535 0.437
6. Infrastructure Average time to access all-weather roads Hours 0.702 0.761 0.673 0.351
Average time to access schools Hours 0.742 0.777 0.742 0.530
Average time to access veterinary services Hours 0.731 0.757 0.731 0.574
Average time to access markets Hours 0.613 0.747 0.693 0.427
HHs who have access to savings and credit Percent 0.653 0.779 0.579 0.200
HHs who have access to electricity Percent 0.042 0.137 0.000 0.000
HHs who have access to telephone Percent 0.653 0.842 0.337 0.063
Profile indexed value   0.591 0.686 0.537 0.306
7. Community Male-headed households Percent 0.867 0.960 0.960 0.930
Household heads attended some level of school Percent 0.821 0.853 0.632 0.300
Extension service received Percent 0.800 0.850 0.870 0.660
Average number of trainings attended Number 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.000
Average time to access health services Hours 0.514 0.549 0.480 0.411
Radio ownership Percent 0.842 0.919 0.558 0.432
Profile indexed value   0.807 0.855 0.750 0.456
8. Social Governance (% of HHs participated in the election of leadership) Percent 0.870 0.843 0.842 0.789
Membership in CBOs % of HHs who are members of CBO 0.895 0.915 0.920 0.821
Participation in projects Participation index 0.412 0.618 0.471 0.324
Availability of bylaws Percent 0.590 0.680 0.620 0.580
Average number of non-working days per month Number of Days 0.558 0.642 0.592 0.125
HHs who have the tradition of working together Percent 0.920 0.899 0.798 0.910
Profile indexed value   0.708 0.766 0.707 0.591
  1. HL highland, ML midland, WL wetland, and LL lowland exposure and sensitivity components and higher vulnerability factor for adaptive capacity component. The highland and wetland AESs scored intermediate results and the details of the major profiles and its associated indicators discussed below