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Table 1 Attributes and levels used in the DCEs to improve EBWSM

From: Valuing the water supply: ecosystem-based potable water supply management for the Legedadie-Dire catchments, Central Ethiopia

No Attributes Description Current status/status quo Attribute levels
1 Water quality Improvement of the quality of municipal drinking water from the source via upstream EBWSM interventions (reinstate riparian ecological conditions via buffering along rivers and reservoirs, application of conservation agriculture with controlled grazing, grass filter strips, and reforestation activities on degraded lands) in the Dire-Legedadie catchments. This can improve not only the surface water supply (such as water stored in the reservoirs) but also augment the potential of the upstream catchment in recharging groundwater sources (Akaki wellfields). High risk of contamination Risk-free and high-quality water
Moderate water quality yet palatable and safe to drink
2 Water quantity Application of upstream catchment EBWSM interventions (afforestation and reinstate riparian ecological conditions via buffering along rivers and reservoirs) that can initiate continuous water flow to reservoirs by reducing sedimentation and improving the storage capacity of the reservoirs in the Dire-Legedadie catchments. This will increase the drinking water supply. Such interventions can improve the surface water supply (such as water stored in the reservoirs) and also augment the potential of the upstream catchment in recharging groundwater sources (Akaki wellfields). 2–3 months of shortages annually
(1 week–10 days/month)
No months of shortages
1 month of shortages annually
(2–3 days/month)
3 Water pressure Management of water distribution systems and improvement of flow pressure by installing leak detection and pressure control equipment and other water distribution facilities that can conserve unnecessary drinking water leakage and unaccounted water losses. Unpredicted and low pressure in most areas Normal pressure (40 to 55 PSI)
  Compensation payment Households’ WTP for an improved municipal water supply per month in addition to the monthly water bill. No payment 12.50, 18, 21, 25, 29, and 36 ETB per month