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Table 2 A sample elicitation

From: Valuing the water supply: ecosystem-based potable water supply management for the Legedadie-Dire catchments, Central Ethiopia

Section 3—Elicit willingness-to-pay values: DCE scenario presented to the downstream community members as a valuation scenario for Ecosystem-Based Water Supply Management (EBWSM) in the Dire-Legedadie reservoirs. (Note to the Interviewer: read the following introduction to the respondents very clearly.)
You have been randomly chosen from the residents of Addis Ababa to be involved in this survey. There is a large gap between the supply and demand for potable water in Addis Ababa in addition to the high risk of water contamination. This is mainly attributed to the increasing population growth rate in the city, natural resource degradation across the upstream catchments, which is leading to siltation in the reservoirs, and the poorly managed pipelines and water distribution systems, which is demonstrated by leakage and loses. The provision of improved water service requires proper management of both the water source and supply systems. We want to explore the residents’ preferences for EBWSM interventions to improve the ecosystem health of the upstream catchments (Dire-Legedadie reservoir catchments) to increase the quality and quantity of drinking water supplied to the city. Please consider the following two EBWSM interventions.
Improvement of water quality status supplied by the municipality: The raw water quality in the Dire-Legedadie reservoirs has deteriorated over the past several years (greater than 1600 Formazin Turbidity Units; FTU) due to transportation, deposition, and building up of silt, suspended solids, pathogens, and chemicals such as pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and other pollutants from the upstream catchment to the reservoirs. This will cause degraded raw water quality and will significantly increase the cost of raw water treatment. The effectiveness of water treatment becomes burdensome due to increased costs and makes the drinking water unsafe and risky. However, the raw water quality can be improved through appropriate upstream catchment management alternatives, which can reduce costs and make further water treatment more effective. Appropriate upstream catchment management alternatives may include reinstatement of riparian ecological conditions by establishing buffers along rivers and reservoirs, the application of conservation agriculture with controlled grazing, managing waterways through grass filter strips and reforestation activities on degraded lands. Enhancing water quality through upstream catchment management alternatives will also reduce the burden on the municipality with regard to water quality treatment. And it provides an opportunity to focus on the distribution management systems (e.g., regulate and control the distribution system, maintain and replace old and leaky pipelines) and thus reduce the risk of water contamination, which will make the drinking water risk-free and have a high quality.
Enhancement of water quantity and pressure to be supplied by the municipality: Sedimentation and siltation in the Legedadie reservoir have consistently reduced the live storage capacity of the reservoir, which influences the water quantity. Nevertheless, upstream catchment management can be performed through EBWSM interventions (afforestation and reinstating riparian ecological conditions via buffering along streams and reservoirs). These interventions will increase the drinking water supply for the city by means of decreasing the siltation rates and increasing the reservoir’s storage capacity. Moreover, upstream catchment management can increase the effectiveness of water recharge and infiltration, which improves the capacity of the groundwater reserves in the Akaki wellfields. This will in turn help to ensure the sustainability of the water supply systems in Addis Ababa. In addition, managing the distribution systems will help to prevent the unnecessary wastage of drinking water through leakage. Therefore, the existing disparity between the water supply and demand can be improved significantly, and water would be available in your house without shortages and at a higher pressure for drinking, showering, washing dishes, and doing laundry at the same time. However, such changes in water improvement will incur additional costs for the execution of the management alternatives that focus on upstream water supply enhancement, which are costly to implement by the municipality or water agency alone. Rather, such programs would be effective if adequate funds are produced through a contribution by the community. Hence, for such an improved water supply scheme, you would be required to pay a certain amount of money with your monthly water bills. To determine your WTP for these interventions, a monetary value for the improved water supply (i.e., drinking water quality and quantity) in Ethiopian ETB per month is also included in the choices.
Are you willing to pay a certain amount toward the EBWSM interventions? 1. Yes, 2. No (if No, proceed to Q. 62)
Would you participate and go to meetings and workshops to discuss your views on the EBWSM options?
1. Yes, I would be very interested and would attend meetings and workshops to discuss the EBWSM options.
2. No, I would not attend meetings and workshops to discuss the EBWSM options because I do not have time to do so.
3. No, I do not think we need a new water supply system. I am happy with my current water supply situation.
4. No, I would not attend meetings and workshops because I do not believe that an improved system will be built.
5. No, I would not attend meetings and workshops because it is the responsibility of the government to provide water for free.
6. Other reasons_________________________________________________?