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Table 2 Significant processes affecting water quality (modified from Bartram et al., 1996)

From: Impact of land uses on water quality in Malaysia: a review

Category Parameters Significant process within water body Water body
• Physical Temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), etc. Gas exchange with atmosphere Mostly rivers and lakes
Volatilization Mostly rivers and lakes
Adsorption/desorption All water bodies
Heating and cooling Mostly rivers and lakes
Diffusion Lakes and groundwater
• Chemical Heavy metals, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, etc. Photodegradation Lakes and rivers
Acid-base reactions All water bodies
Redox reactions All water bodies
Dissolution of particles All water bodies
Precipitation of minerals All water bodies
Ionic exchange Groundwater
• Biological Escherichia coli (E. coli), Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Coliform bacteria, sea urchin, etc. Primary production Surface waters
Microbial die-off and growth All water bodies
Decomposition of organic matter Mostly rivers and lakes
Bioaccumulation Mostly rivers and lakes
• Hydrological Water level, depth (m), velocity (m/s), flow direction, discharge, etc. Dilution All water bodies
Evaporation Surface waters
Percolation and leaching Groundwater
Suspension and settling Surface waters