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Table 1 Daily means of microclimatic variables and energy balance components during the growing season and non-growing season of 2007–2010 in Songnen meadow steppe

From: Effects of changes in precipitation on energy and water balance in a Eurasian meadow steppe

  Growing season Non-growing season Whole year
(May–September) (October–April)  
2007 2008 2009 2010 2007 2008 2009 2010* 2007 2008 2009 2010
Ta (°C) 21.26 19.76 19.88 20.67 −2.82 − 3.38 −6.69 − 5.62 8.23 6.83 5.64 7.91
Ts (°C) 21.15 17.78 16.53 16.92 −0.87 −1.02 −2.91 0.40 7.14 5.91 7.31
SWC (m3 m−3) 0.44 0.52 0.52 0.40 0.22 0.23 0.19 0.24 0.28 0.35 0.33 0.29
VPD (kPa) 1.23 0.92 1.10 1.16 0.37 0.34 0.25 0.28 0.77 0.60 0.65 0.72
SWP (bar) −0.91 −0.30 −0.25 −0.30 −2.07 − 0.68 −1.15 −0.40 − 2.44 −1.08 − 0.52 − 0.55
Precipitation (mm) 198.7 340.7 213.3 199.7 42.5 69.4 33.7 60.8 207.9 384.2 281.5 265.6
ET (mm) 287.3 326.1 317.8 339.7 71.7 90.7 104.9 100.7 334.5 403.9 401.5 453.7
ET/P 1.45 0.96 1.52 1.70 1.69 1.31 3.11 1.66 1.61 1.05 1.43 1.71
Rn (MJ m−2 d−1) 10.04 9.90 10.69 9.54 1.83 2.16 2.44 1.69 6.54 5.16 6.30 7.42
LE (MJ m−2 d−1) 4.58 5.19 5.09 5.43 0.87 0.97 1.18   3.18 2.71 2.82 3.84
H (MJ m−2 d−1) 3.56 2.48 3.23 2.78 2.15 1.99 1.67   2.83 2.23 2.66 2.47
G (MJ m−2 d−1) 1.217 0.690 1.220 0.730 −0.494 −0.549 −0.640   0.356 0.041 −0.034 0.240
S (MJ m−2 d−1) 0.007 0.002 0.003 0.008 −0.011 −0.006 − 0.007   − 0.006 − 0.006 − 0.002 0.011
LE/Rn 0.46 0.53 0.46 0.51 0.12 0.18 0.19   0.34 0.28 0.33 0.38
H/Rn 0.37 0.27 0.32 0.29 0.55 0.57 0.56   0.39 0.40 0.48 0.46
G/Rn 0.115 0.067 0.068 0.078 0.033 0.051 0.023   0.171 0.048 0.055 0.045
S/Rn −0.003 −0.005 −0.007 − 0.002 − 0.022 − 0.015 − 0.017   − 0.021 −0.013 − 0.017 −0.012
EBR 0.94 0.83 0.85 0.92 1.31 1.17 0.96   1.00 0.97 0.91 0.93
β 1.39 0.95 1.29 1.04 5.75 4.82 3.49   2.83 3.47 3.05 1.97
LE/LEeq 0.57 0.59 0.54 0.59 0.45 0.43 0.6   0.53 0.51 0.5 0.61
gc (mm s−1) 4.06 6.21 4.90 5.38 2.71 2.78 5.64   3.45 4.34 4.22 5.92
Ω 0.24 0.33 0.26 0.34 0.22 0.20 0.39   0.23 0.26 0.25 0.26
  1. *The data from January–April in 2011 were not available