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Fig. 1 | Ecological Processes

Fig. 1

From: Variable retention harvesting in Great Lakes mixed-pine forests: emulating a natural model in managed ecosystems

Fig. 1

Historical photo documentation of large gap regeneration and heterogeneous canopy structure in red pine-dominated ecosystems (colloquially referred to as Norway pine). The photos, taken in 1939, are from what is now the Chippewa National Forest, MN, USA. Top: The caption for this photo reads nature’s own group selection: red pine reproduction often became established in great abundance following a seed year, but because of the density of the overstory such reproduction was generally shaded out within a few years except in openings caused by tree mortality. Bottom: Large old pines and red pine cohort regeneration, Pike Bay, MN, USA

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