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Fig. 6 | Ecological Processes

Fig. 6

From: Variable retention harvesting in Great Lakes mixed-pine forests: emulating a natural model in managed ecosystems

Fig. 6

Conceptual representation of various types of variable retention harvesting in red pine ecosystems. Retention may be implemented as dispersed trees (a) or aggregated with or without some dispersed trees in the harvested matrix (b, c). Alternatively, retention may be implemented as large gap (patch) openings with a few retained trees in the opening (d) or as smaller patch openings with or without thinning of the forest between the openings (e, f)

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