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Table 1 Examples of organizations and agencies that recommend some form of retention in their red pine management guides

From: Variable retention harvesting in Great Lakes mixed-pine forests: emulating a natural model in managed ecosystems

Entity Ecological objectives Retention consideration
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resource
Provision of wildlife habitat; production of diverse ecological benefits Retain some mature red pines at harvest if shoot blight is not a concern; retain snags that are not a safety concern
Minnesota Forest Resources Council
Retaining habitat structure after harvest Leave some live trees during harvest as either 5% of harvest unit in clumps (> 0.1 ha) or 15–30 scattered trees per hectare or a combination of these; retain all snags and large logs
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry
Maintenance of stand and landscape biodiversity Protection of (trees containing) stick nests, cavity trees, mast trees, super canopy trees