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Table 3 Major tree genera or species, their deer browse preference in the northeastern US (Rawinski 2014) and central (Latham et al. 2005) and southern (Warren and Hurst 1981) US during the growing and non-growing season, and their change in percent of all trees in forests from historical (1620–1900) to present (2011–2017) in the eastern US. Changes in dominance reflect overall trend across the entire eastern US and may vary within forest regions and provinces

From: Does white-tailed deer density affect tree stocking in forests of the Eastern United States?

Tree group Scientific name North Central spr/sum Central fall/wint South spr/sum South fall/wint Change
Balsam fir Abies balsamea Non-preferred Unknown Unknown N/A N/A Increase
Red maple Acer rubrum Preferred Low/moderate High Moderate/high Low/moderate Increase
Sugar maple Acer saccharum Preferred Low/moderate Moderate N/A N/A Increase
Birch Betula Non-preferred Low/moderate Moderate/high N/A N/A Neutral
Hickory Carya N/A Low Low Low/moderate Low Neutral
Beech Fagus sylvatica Non-preferred Low High Moderate/high Low/moderate Decrease
Ash Fraxinus Preferred Low/moderate High Moderate/high Low/moderate Increase
Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana Preferred Moderate Moderate Low/moderate Moderate/high Increase
Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua N/A Low Low Low/moderate Low Increase
Yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera N/A High High Moderate/high Moderate Increase
Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Preferred High High High Moderate Increase
Spruce Picea Non-preferred None Low N/A N/A Increase
White pine Pinus strobus Non-preferred Low Moderate N/A N/A Decrease
Pine Pinus Non-preferred Unknown Unknown Low Low Decrease
Aspen Populus Preferred Low Low Moderate/high Low/moderate Increase
Black cherry Prunus serotina Preferred Low Low High Moderate/high Increase
Oak Quercus Preferred Moderate High Low Low Decrease
Northern white cedar Thuja occidentalis Preferred N/A N/A N/A N/A Increase
Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis Preferred Low High N/A N/A Decrease