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Table 1 Compositional change between older and newer tree surveys, adjusted for comparison (species ≥ 1.5% currently; change = new percentage − old percentage; ratio = new percentage/old percentage), shade tolerance values, and tree strategy group. Adjustments to equalize survey effort make the differences between values more suitable to assess

From: Recent shifts in shade tolerance and disturbance traits in forests of the eastern United States

Region Scientific name Common name Old % New % Change Ratio Shade Group
Central eastern Acer rubrum Red maple 13.22 15.11 1.88 1.14 3.44 Mid-successional
  Acer saccharum Sugar maple 7.72 8.65 0.93 1.12 4.76 Late-successional
  Pinus strobus Eastern white pine 5.86 6.76 0.90 1.15 3.21 Mid-successional
  Juniperus virginiana Eastern redcedar 3.28 6.41 3.14 1.96 1.28 Early-successional
  Quercus alba White oak 5.12 3.97 − 1.16 0.77 2.85 Fire-tolerant oaks
  Betula lenta Sweet birch 2.17 2.92 0.75 1.35 2.58 Mid-successional
  Pinus virginiana Virginia pine 3.88 2.78 − 1.09 0.72 1.99 Early-successional
  Liriodendron tulipifera Yellow-poplar 3.01 2.77 − 0.24 0.92 2.07 Early-successional
  Quercus prinus Chestnut oak 3.16 2.66 − 0.50 0.84 2.85 Fire-tolerant oaks
  Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine 3.19 2.32 − 0.87 0.73 1.86 Early-successional
  Quercus rubra Northern red oak 2.91 2.27 − 0.64 0.78 2.75 Fire-tolerant oaks
  Quercus velutina Black oak 3.07 2.15 − 0.92 0.70 2.72 Fire-tolerant oaks
  Tsuga canadensis Eastern hemlock 1.63 2.12 0.48 1.30 4.83 Late-successional
  Prunus serotina Black cherry 1.56 2.12 0.56 1.36 2.46 Early-successional
  Fraxinus americana White ash 2.28 1.90 − 0.39 0.83 2.46 Early-successional
  Acer negundo Boxelder 0.86 1.71 0.85 1.99 3.47 Mid-successional
  Carya glabra Pignut hickory 0.92 1.51 0.59 1.64 2.69 Mid-successional
Northern Southeast Pinus taeda Loblolly pine 26.10 37.59 11.49 1.44 1.99 Planted pines
  Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine 21.84 7.96 − 13.88 0.36 1.86 Fire-tolerant pines
  Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum 6.17 6.80 0.63 1.10 1.59 Early-successional
  Juniperus virginiana Eastern redcedar 2.43 5.66 3.23 2.33 1.28 Early-successional
  Acer rubrum Red maple 4.03 5.45 1.42 1.35 3.44 Mid-successional
  Pinus virginiana Virginia pine 5.59 4.79 − 0.80 0.86 1.99 Early-successional
  Liriodendron tulipifera Yellow-poplar 1.96 2.89 0.93 1.47 2.07 Early-successional
  Quercus alba White oak 2.94 2.58 − 0.36 0.88 2.85 Fire-tolerant oaks
  Quercus nigra Water oak 1.33 1.73 0.40 1.30 2.25 Early-successional
  Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam 0.86 1.52 0.66 1.77 4.58 Late-successional
Coastal Plain Pinus taeda Loblolly pine 24.97 35.44 10.47 1.42 1.99 Planted pines
  Pinus elliottii Slash pine 12.72 13.16 0.43 1.03 1.99 Planted pines
  Acer rubrum Red maple 7.37 7.63 0.26 1.04 3.44 Mid-successional
  Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum 5.03 4.71 − 0.33 0.94 1.59 Early-successional
  Pinus palustris Longleaf pine 6.93 3.71 − 3.22 0.53 0.87 Fire-tolerant pines
  Nyssa biflora Swamp tupelo 4.21 3.02 − 1.18 0.72 2.00 Early-successional
  Quercus nigra Water oak 2.11 2.75 0.64 1.30 2.25 Early-successional
  Taxodium distichum Bald cypress 2.75 2.21 − 0.54 0.80 2.13 Early-successional
  Taxodium ascendens Pond cypress 2.41 1.77 − 0.64 0.73 2.13 Early-successional
  Quercus laurifolia Laurel oak 1.18 1.77 0.58 1.49 3.34 Mid-successional
  Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine 5.33 1.64 − 3.69 0.31 1.86 Fire-tolerant pines