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Table 1 Physiography, climate, broad soil group, and cropping pattern of study area

From: Assessment of ecosystem services of rice farms in eastern India

S. No. Agro-climatic zone Physiography Climate Broad soil group Major crops
1 North Central Plateau (NCP) Latitude: 21° 1′ N to 22° 10′ N; longitude: 85° 11′ E to 86° 22′ E
Forest: 37.34% of total area; Land form: Valleys and low land, Mountainous highlands
Hot and moist, sub-humid, rainfall: 1534 mm, temp: 11.1–36.6 °C Lateritic, red and yellow, mixed red and black Rice, maize, till, niger, pigeon pea, etc.
2 North Western Plateau (NWP) Latitude: 20° 40′ N to 22° 11′ N; longitude: 82° 39′ E to 85° 15′ E
Forest: 54% of total area; land form: hilly terrain, plateau and ridges, valley and plains
Hot and moist, sub-humid, rainfall: 1600 mm, temp: 15.0–38.0 °C Red, brown forest, red and yellow, mixed red and black Rice, gram, pigeon pea, groundnut, sesame, mustard, caster, linseed, sugarcane, etc.
3 North Eastern Coastal Plain (NECP) Latitude: 20° 48′ N to 21° 59′ N; longitude: 86° 16′ E to 87° 29′ E
Forest: 8.66% of total area; Land form: Costal plains, Hilly terrains
Moist sub-humid, rainfall: 1568 mm, temp: 14.8–36.0 °C Red, lateritic, deltaic alluvial, coastal alluvial and saline Rice, pulses, groundnut, caster, mustard, linseed, etc.
4 North Eastern Ghats (NEG) Latitude: 19° 34′ N to 20° 36′ N; longitude: 88° 34′ E to 84° 34′ E
Forest: 71.19% of total area; Land form: Hilly terrain with narrow valleys
Hot and moist, sub-humid, rainfall: 1597 mm, temp: 10.4–37.0 °C Brown forest, lateritic alluvial, red, mixed red and black Rice, mustard, maize, niger, etc.