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Table 2 Reference table of rice eco-system services

From: Assessment of ecosystem services of rice farms in eastern India

Services Methodology of service Conversion factor Economic value Reference
Food 1st crop—rice, 2nd crop—rice, green gram, black gram, groundnut, turmeric Whole farm produce in quintals MSP of crops
By-products Rice straw 1.5 times of grain US$ 0.0155 kg−1 Farm gate price
Biocontrol of pest Economic threshold level (ETL) Market cost of recommended dose of pesticide at ETL level 1 Spider = US$0.038, 1 Miridbug = US$0.008, 1 Ladybird beetle = US$0.06, 1 Ground beetle = US$ 0.0043 Mala et al. 2009; Shepard et al. (IRRI) 1987; Gurr et al. 2004; Sandhu et al. 2005
Soil formation Earthworms and Dung beetle 1 tonne of earthworms forms 1 tonne of soil ha−1yr−1; 2g soil accumulated per gram of dung beetle (dry wt basis) Top-soil value is US$ 2093 ha−1 Herrick et al. 1996; Sandhu et al. 2008, Kathuria 2015
Mineralization of plant nutrients Assessment of soil N mineralization Total N = 77.78% of NH4 Equivalent price of N = US$ 0.082 kg−1 Shahid et al. 2017
Carbon flow Difference of only change of C and C emission Carbon accumulation is 40% of total biomass incorporated in field, Percentage left over C of the applied amount from organic amendments and crop residues is 28.8% in rice field CER (Carbon Emission Reduction) is about US$ 21.71 Sandhu et al. 2008; Johnson et al. 2006; Bhola et al. 2014; Mandal et al. 2008
Nitrogen fixation Rice—19 kg N ha−1 crop−1; Green gram − 140 kg−1 ha−1 year−1   Equivalent price of N = US$ 0.082 kg−1 Franco et al. 2000; Roger et al. 1992
Soil fertility Nutrient (NPK) uptake from soil(Net soil contribution) NUE = 34%; PUE = 25%; KUE = 60% for rice Market price of fertilizers Roy et al. 2006; Ravichandran and Sriramachandrasekharan 2011; Lakshmi et al. 2012; Vinod and Heuer 2012
Hydrological flow Rain and irrigation water recharge About 45% of total rainfall and irrigation as recharge to groundwater US$ 1.5 per 1000 m3 Water charging in irrigated agriculture (FAO 2001); Tripathi 2016
Erosion District level data of soil erosion Sediment delivery ratio (SDR) = 0.3 Top soil value as US$ 2093 ha−1, Sreenivasalu. 2012