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Table 2 Reference table of rice eco-system services

From: Assessment of ecosystem services of rice farms in eastern India


Methodology of service

Conversion factor

Economic value



1st crop—rice, 2nd crop—rice, green gram, black gram, groundnut, turmeric

Whole farm produce in quintals

MSP of crops


Rice straw

1.5 times of grain

US$ 0.0155 kg−1

Farm gate price

Biocontrol of pest

Economic threshold level (ETL)

Market cost of recommended dose of pesticide at ETL level

1 Spider = US$0.038, 1 Miridbug = US$0.008, 1 Ladybird beetle = US$0.06, 1 Ground beetle = US$ 0.0043

Mala et al. 2009; Shepard et al. (IRRI) 1987; Gurr et al. 2004; Sandhu et al. 2005

Soil formation

Earthworms and Dung beetle

1 tonne of earthworms forms 1 tonne of soil ha−1yr−1; 2g soil accumulated per gram of dung beetle (dry wt basis)

Top-soil value is US$ 2093 ha−1

Herrick et al. 1996; Sandhu et al. 2008, Kathuria 2015

Mineralization of plant nutrients

Assessment of soil N mineralization

Total N = 77.78% of NH4

Equivalent price of N = US$ 0.082 kg−1

Shahid et al. 2017

Carbon flow

Difference of only change of C and C emission

Carbon accumulation is 40% of total biomass incorporated in field, Percentage left over C of the applied amount from organic amendments and crop residues is 28.8% in rice field

CER (Carbon Emission Reduction) is about US$ 21.71

Sandhu et al. 2008; Johnson et al. 2006; Bhola et al. 2014; Mandal et al. 2008

Nitrogen fixation

Rice—19 kg N ha−1 crop−1; Green gram − 140 kg−1 ha−1 year−1


Equivalent price of N = US$ 0.082 kg−1

Franco et al. 2000; Roger et al. 1992

Soil fertility

Nutrient (NPK) uptake from soil(Net soil contribution)

NUE = 34%; PUE = 25%; KUE = 60% for rice

Market price of fertilizers

Roy et al. 2006; Ravichandran and Sriramachandrasekharan 2011; Lakshmi et al. 2012; Vinod and Heuer 2012

Hydrological flow

Rain and irrigation water recharge

About 45% of total rainfall and irrigation as recharge to groundwater

US$ 1.5 per 1000 m3

Water charging in irrigated agriculture (FAO 2001); Tripathi 2016


District level data of soil erosion

Sediment delivery ratio (SDR) = 0.3

Top soil value as US$ 2093 ha−1, Sreenivasalu. 2012