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Table 3 Values of ecosystem service (in $ ha−1 year−1) generated in rice cultivated field under different agro-climatic zones

From: Assessment of ecosystem services of rice farms in eastern India

Ecosystem services NCPa NWP NECP NEG Mean
Food 1040 ± 97 1119 ± 186 981 ± 90 1059 ± 112 1050
By products 67 ± 8 114 ± 19 71 ± 4 37 ± 6 72
Market value of ES 1107 1234 1052 1096 1122
Biocontrol of pest 1.2 ± 0.3 2 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.4 1.6
Soil formation (/108) 2.3 ± 0 7 ± 0 1.4 ± 0 0.5 ± 0 2.8
Mineralisation of plant nutrients 76 ± 3 64 ± 2 111 ± 4 68 ± 2 80
Carbon flow − 0.5 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 1.1 − 0.8 ± 0.3 − 0.3 ± 0.3 0.5
Nitrogen fixation 10 ± 0.9 2 ± 0.2 9 ± 1.3 1 ± 0 5.5
Soil fertility 487 ± 22 101 ± 16 371 ± 62 64 ± 9 256
Hydrological flow 11 ± 0.2 12 ± 0.1 12 ± 0.2 11 ± 0 11
Soil erosion − 3.7 ± 0.8 − 2.1 ± 0 − 4.2 ± 0 − 4.2 ± 0.1 − 4
Non-market value of ES 581 183 498 142 351
Total economic value of ES 1688 1416 1550 1238 1473
  1. Negative sign for disservice; values [mean ± standard error (SE)]
  2. aNCP North Central Plateau, NWP North Western Plateau, NECP North Eastern Coastal Plain, NEG North Eastern Ghats