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Table 1 Contents of retention-tree criteria of the national Finnish forest certification standards PEFC and FSC during 1998–2014. Minimum number: minimum number of required retention trees/hectare; Minimum size: minimum DBH (cm) required for retention trees. Substitution with dead trees: are dead trees accepted as substitutes for living retention trees or not. References: 1 = Metsäsertifioinnin valmiusprojekti 1998, 2 = Metsäsertifioinnin standardityöryhmä 2003, 3 = PEFC Finland 2009, 4 = PEFC Finland 2014, 5 = The Board of the Finnish FSC Association 2005, 6 = Finnish FSC Association 2010)

From: Low-level retention forestry, certification, and biodiversity: case Finland

StandardCriterionMinimum numberMinimum sizeSubstitution with dead treesReference
SMS/PEFC#21: “Retention trees shall be left in regeneration areas”5Not defined, but wording indicates coarsenessNo, but it is recommended that dead trees should be retained1
FFCS/PEFC#12: “Retention trees shall be left in regeneration areas”5 (5-10)≥ 10 cmYes, DBH ≥ 10 cm2
PEFC#13: “Retention trees and decaying wood shall be left in forestry operations”5 (5-10)> 10 cmYes, DBH > 20 cm3
PEFC#14: “Retention trees and decaying tree stems shall be left on site in forestry operations”10> 10 cmYes, DBH > 20 cm4
FSC#6.3.2: “Retention trees shall be preserved in each harvesting operation”10≥ 20 cmNo, dead trees must be retained or established according to another criterion (6.3.1)5
FSC#6.3.2: “On a regeneration felling compartment, the forest owner shall permanently retain: minimum average of 10 large-diameter … living trees of native species per hectare.”10> 20 cm in Southern Finland, > 15 cm in Northern FinlandNo, dead trees must be retained according to another criterion (6.3.1)6
  1. Abbreviations: DBH diameter at breast height, FFCS Finnish Forest Certification System, FSC Forest Stewardship Council, PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, SMS Suomen metsäsertifiointi