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Table 5 List of driving forces for systematic land cover transitions in the NSNP

From: Spatially explicit statistical modeling of random and systematic land cover transitions in the main grassland plain of Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia

VariablesAbbreviationsUnitsProxy for
Topography variables
ElevationELEVmMean annual temperature (°C)
SlopeSLPDegreesDiffuse solar radiation
Sine of aspectSIN_ASP− 1 to 1Eastness
Cosine of aspectCOS_ASP− 1 to 1Northness
Distance variables
Proximity to forest edgeDIS_WREDG86mLikelihood for forest loss
Proximity to roads/trailsDIS_RTRAmLikelihood for forage use and constructions
Proximity to drainage networksDIS_DRAmAccessibility
Other driving forcesCauses
Successive government policies  Population pressure due to population growth, villagization programs, resettlements (formal/informal).
Local climate incidence (drought)  Erratic rainfall (November–June)
Education  Lack of awareness on environmental management and related issues.
Political unrest  Landholding crisis (e.g., Gedeo, Segen, Borena, Guji I and II).
Livelihood of the population  Movable pastoralism and agro-pastoralism.
Geo-politics  Frequent clan conflicts on park border demarcation.