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Table 1 Mean and proportion of producers’ characteristics by crop diversification

From: Crop diversification analysis on red pepper dominated smallholder farming system: evidence from northwest Ethiopia

VariablesCategoryMean/proportiont/χ2 statistics
Diversifier (n = 310)Non-diversifier (n = 75)Overall
AgeYears48.98(10.42)45.56(10.71)48.31(10.56)− 2.536**
Family sizeAE3.67(1.42)3.63(1.12)3.66(1.36)− 0.203
ExperienceYears19.29(11.65)17.13(12.06)18.87(11.75)− 1.429
Livestock ownedTLU6.78(5.01)6.67(10.49)8.87(46.09)− 0.132
Total land sizeha1.86(0.80)1.33(0.897)1.764(0.849)− 5.093***
Distance to nearest marketKm5.69(5.19)3.01(3.54)5.17(5.02)− 0.583
Distance to development centerkm2.49(2.89)2.69(2.36)2.54(2.79)0.550
SexMale300(77.92)67 (17.40)367(95.32)7.502***
Female10(2.60)8(2.08)18(4.68)
Off/on–farm incomeYes127(32.99)34(8.83)161(41.82)0.473
No183(47.53)41(10.65)224(58.18) 
Market informationYes206(53.51)39(10.13)245(63.64)5.450**
No104(27.01)36(9.35)140(36.36)
Extension accessYes246(63.90)56(14.55)302(78.44)0.785
No64(16.62)19(4.94)83(21.26) 
Credit accessYes188(48.83)48(12.47)236(61.30)0.286
No122(31.69)27(7.01)149(38.70)
Literacy statusLiterate163(42.34)36(9.35)199(51.69) 
Cannot read and write147(38.18)39(10.13)186(48.31)1.484
  1. ***, **, and *significant at 1, 5, and 10% level respectively. Results in parenthesis are percentage or standard deviation