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Table 2 Experiments on retention forestry in Finland and Sweden. The Finnish experiments are located in the middle boreal biome and the Swedish experiment in the north boreal biome (Ahti et al. 1968). The Finnish experiments are ordered according to establishment year. For location of experiments, see Fig. 2, and for photos from a selection of experiments, see Fig. 3. Year establishment year, Age stand age at establishment (year), NS Norway spruce Picea abies, SP Scots pine Pinus sylvestris. Blocks, size = number of blocks or stands, and their size ranges. LUKE Natural Resources Institute Finland, Metsähallitus Finnish forest and park services, Metsäteho Metsäteho Ltd., a research and development company by Finnish forest industry organizations, UEF University of Eastern Finland, UH University of Helsinki, Skogforsk Forestry Research Institute of Sweden. For explanation of Finnish experiment names, see the section “Abbreviations” in the text

From: Research on retention forestry in Northern Europe

ExperimentsCharacteristics
 YearAge, tree speciesBlocks, sizeTreatmentsResponse variablesResponsibleInformation
MONTA (East and West) (Finland)199590, NS48, 1–2 haClear felling, retention felling (up to 0.02 ha patches), gap felling, selection fellingWood-inhabiting fungi, vascular plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, beetles, spiders, ants, land snails, timber volume, sapling establishment, coarse woody debrisLUKE, Metsäteho, UHJalonen and Vanha-Majamaa 2001
RETREE (Finland)199790, NS11, 1–3 haRetention of 0.1–0.6 ha patches in clear-felled standsVascular plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, beetles, spiders, land snails, timber volume, sapling establishment, coarse woody debrisLUKE, UHMatveinen-Huju et al. 2006
FIRE (Finland)2000150, SP24, 3–5 haRetention of different intensity (0, 10, or 50 m3/ha), burningPolypore and other fungi, beetles, flat bugs, pollinators, small mammals, ungulates, lichens, tree monitoring, tree regeneration, dendrochronologyUEFHyvärinen et al. 2005
EVO (Finland)200190, NS24, 1–3 haDown wood retention (5, 30, or 60 m3/ha), standing tree retention (50 m3/ha), burningWood-inhabiting fungi, vascular plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, beetles, timber volume, sapling establishment, coarse woody debrisLUKE, UHVanha-Majamaa et al. 2007
DISTDYN (East and West) (Finland)200990, NS/SP12, 200–300 haSelection felling, gap felling, clear felling, deadwood addition. 5–20% retention volumeWood-inhabiting fungi, vascular plants (some lichens and mosses), beetles, timber volume, sapling establishmentLUKE, Metsähallitus, UEF, UHKoivula et al. 2014
Effaråsen (Sweden)2012120, SP24, 5–14 haRetention gradient (3–100% volume) and burningWood-inhabiting fungi, mycorrhiza fungi, epixylic lichens, beetles, timber volume, logging performance and opportunity costs, carbon stock, albedoSkogforskDjupström and Weslien 2019
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