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Table 2 Summary of experimental results on different species groups. Short- (up to 3 years post harvest) and long-term effects (> 3 years) are separated by a slash line. + = positive, − = negative and ± = not detectable or ambiguous effect, and na = not assessed. Retention = effect of standard or higher retention; Fire = effect of prescribed burning; CWD = effect of artificial large-sized dead wood; Paludified = effect of moist micro-sites within forest; Site prep = effect of site preparation (usually disc trenching or mounding); Interactions = two of the previous variables have been observed to interact; Other aspects = other important determinants of species-group abundance or species richness. 1 = experimental data contain several red-listed or highly specialized species

From: Experimental evidence on biodiversity impacts of variable retention forestry, prescribed burning, and deadwood manipulation in Fennoscandia

Ecological groupRetentionFireCWDPaludifiedSite prepInteractionsOther aspects
Understory vegetation
 Late successional+/+−/−na/na+/+−/na  
 Mosses and lichens+/+−/nana/na+/+−/−  
Epiphytic and epixylic bryophytes and lichens
 Epiphytic 1+/+−/−na/na+/na−/na Long−term effect of fire may be positive
 Epixylic 1+/+−/nana/nana/na−/−  
 Polypores 1±/+−/++/+na/nana/naRete x FireDowned CWD better than high stumps
Ground-dwelling arthropods
 Ground beetles, shade-requiring+/+−/−na/+na/±−/na Microsite variation larger than felling effect
 Ground beetles, open-habitat−/−+/+na/−na/−+/na Microsite variation larger than felling-effect
 Ground beetles, shade generalists−/−−/+na/±na/−±/na  
 Ground beetles, mire species+/+na/−na/±+/+na/na  
 Spiders, forest web builders+/nana/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Spiders, hunting spiders−/nana/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Harvestmen (Opilionidae)+/nana/nana/nana/nana/na  
Saproxylic and other actively-flying beetles
 Early-stage xylophages 1+/±+/±+/±na/nana/naFire x CWDCWD quality important; if CWD is abundant, felling is of minor importance
 Late-stage xylophages 1±/+±/+±/+na/nana/naFire x CWDCWD quality important; if CWD is abundant, felling is of minor importance
 Mycetophages 1+/+−/−+/+na/nana/naFire x CWDCWD quality important; if CWD is abundant, felling is of minor importance
Other groups
 Flat bugs 1±/++/+na/+na/nana/na  
 Red wood ants (Formica)±/nana/−na/±na/nana/na  
 Millipedes and centipedes+/+na/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Springtails and soil mites+/+na/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Soil decomposers+/+na/nana/nana/na−/−  
 Pollinator insectsna/−na/+na/±na/nana/na  
 Tachinid fliesna/−na/±na/±na/nana/na  
 Fungus gnats+/nana/na+/nana/nana/na  
 Eastern pygmy shrew+/nana/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Wood lemming+/nana/nana/nana/nana/na  
 Northern batna/+na/nana/nana/nana/na