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Table 1 Characteristic features of sampling sites with details on geo-features, sampling size, and the level of disturbances

From: Assessing the bird guild patterns in heterogeneous land use types around Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Study Site Location (acronym) Lat/long Grid size (km2) Elevation (m above msl) Site description Level of disturbance Transects/PCS no./rad./length Hours spent/fortnight
1 Nikki Tawi (NT) 32° 43′ 14″ N 74° 50′ 17″ E 4 290–300 A natural distributary of river Tawi bifurcated close to fourth Tawi bridge southwards of Jammu City with high municipal waste load (Sohil and Sharma 2020) High PCS-05 (25 m R*5) 6.5
2 Gharana Wetland Conservation Reserve (GWCR) 32° 34′ 29″ N 74° 40′ 06″ E 1 262 A small eutrophic wetland (185 acres), a designated Important Bird Area (IBA) is home to a number of trans-boundary winter visitors Moderate PCS-04 (25 m R *4) 7.0
3 University of Jammu campus (JU) 32° 43′ 08″ N 74° 51′ 58″ E 2 320–335 Sprawled in 118 acres, the campus provides a rich array of bird refuges in the form of lawns, plantations, and hedges with well-maintained botanical and cactus gardens Moderate LT-05 (100 m*5) 7.5
4 Ramnagar Wildlife Sanctuary (RWLS) 32° 45′ 08″ N 74° 52′ 15″ E 5 360–450 A well-managed protected area (31 km2) with intact deciduous forests offers a rich habitat to number of forest specialists Low LT-03 (100 m*2 and 300 m*1) 8.0
5 Bahu-Mahamaya forest (BMF) 32° 43′ 43″ N 74° 53′ 29″ E 4 350–470 A typical subtropical mixed patch of deciduous forest (and exotic plantations), along the left bank of river Tawi is a favored bird’s destination Low LT-03 (500 m*1 and 250 m*2) 7.0
6 Southern open plains (SOP) 32° 45′ 32″ N 74° 48′ 26″ E 4 260–270 A mixed landscape interspersed with agriculture fields, fallow lands, water bodies, and habitations. An ideal habitat for the generalists, aquatic dependent birds and raptors Moderate LT-03 (200 m*3) 8.0
  1. PCS point count station (25 m radius), LT line transect
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