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Table 2 Descriptive statistical analysis of 11 heavy metals in water samples of lakes along a rural to urban gradient in central China (Mean±SD)

From: Heavy metal gradients from rural to urban lakes in central China

Heavy metals Concentrations of heavy metals in different groups df F P
A B C D E
Cd (μg/L) 0.05±0.01a 0.09±0.02b 0.15±0.04b 0.21±0.07b 0.15±0.02b 4 6.120 0.004**
Co (μg/L) 0.37±0.09a 1.51±0.74bc 1.16±0.59b 2.84±1.58bc 3.30±1.36c 4 8.906 0.001**
Pb (μg/L) 1.42±0.62a 5.74±2.34b 5.13±2.10b 7.74±4.52b 10.04±8.44b 4 5.329 0.007**
Cr (μg/L) 3.10±0.38a 9.93±2.36b 8.56±5.46b 11.40±5.69b 10.28±5.82b 4 4.290 0.016**
As (μg/L) 3.12±0.53a 18.52±12.64b 20.73±12.34b 15.16±5.07b 45.19±38.37b 4 7.126 0.002**
Ni (μg/L) 5.30±0.61a 12.33±2.18b 11.48±2.70b 16.99±4.02bc 18.22±3.23c 4 16.456 0.000**
Cu (μg/L) 6.64±1.51 11.97±5.06 15.42±13.25 15.82±5.93 20.69±15.67 4 1.277 0.322
Zn (μg/L) 10.35±1.16a 18.68±5.51ab 22.25±8.75b 28.13±8.27b 25.46±10.75b 4 3.930 0.022*
Mn (μg/L) 43.46±13.45a 200.65±91.95b 150.75±68.54b 391.61±164.47bc 656.24±139.43c 4 18.995 0.000**
Fe (mg/L) 0.36±0.05a 2.28±1.49b 2.02±1.43b 5.19±4.15b 4.59±3.20b 4 5.599 0.006**
Al (mg/L) 0.36±0.02a 3.17±2.28b 2.46±1.29b 6.75±5.22b 5.59±4.06b 4 6.120 0.004**
  1. * denotes significant difference P < 0.05; ** denotes significant difference P < 0.01