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Table 1 Chronological events in reproductive stages of M. grandiflora

From: Pollinator-mediated self-pollination and reproductive assurance in an isolated tree of Magnolia grandiflora L.

Stages Average duration from bud initiation in days (June–October) Characteristics
1st flower bud initiation 0 days Flower bud is enclosed by fused hairy three tepals, brownish in colour
Tepal removal 17.5 ± 1.5 days Tepals were shed naturally; candle-shaped crimson white flower bud left
First flower opening 22 ± 1 days Petals become enlarged; cup-shape corolla, candle-shaped stigma is visible
Stigma receptivity 22 ± 1 days Stigma is whitish in colour; curved shape, high starch content
Flower closing 22 ± 1 days Flower completely closed
Floral visitors availability 22 ± 1 days Bees, beetles and thrips are dominant
Second flower opening 23 ± 1 days Stigma contains ample amount of secretory substance, yellowish in colour
Anther dehiscence 23 ± 1 days Anthers start to dehisce from periphery
Petals begin to drop 27 ± 1 days Petals start to decay and turn darkish yellowish in colour; stigma turned darkish; retained the remnants of stamen attachment below the candle-shaped stigma
Fruit formation 41 ± 1 days Swelling of the candle-shaped stalk of stigma
Fruits start to dehisce 75 ± 1 days Dehiscence start from the tip of the fruit; fruit is green to reddish in colour