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Table 2 Pollination-related functional traits and their respective functional groups

From: Does landscape context affect pollination-related functional diversity and richness of understory flowers in forest fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil?

Functional trait Functional group Description Reference
Floral diameter Inconspicuous ≤ 4 mm Machado and Lopes 2004
Small > 4 ≤ 10 mm
Medium > 10 ≤ 20 mm
Big > 20 ≤ 30 mm
Very big > 30 mm
Floral depth Inconspicuous ≤ 4 mm Machado and Lopes 2004
Small > 4 ≤ 10 mm
Medium > 10 ≤ 20 mm
Big > 20 ≤ 30 mm
Very big > 30 mm
Floral resource Pollen   Girão et al. 2007; Rech et al. 2014
Nectar  
Pollen + nectar  
Oil  
No resource  
Other diverse resources May include a combination of the above and other types of resources
Flower color White   Machado and Lopes 2004
Red  
Green (including beige and creme)  
Yellow  
Orange  
Lilac/violet (including blue)  
Pink  
Blossom type Inconspicuous ≤ 4 mm and no attractive structures Faegri and Van der Pijl 1979
Plate/dish  
Funnel  
Brush  
Gullet  
Flag  
Tube  
Pollen presentation strategy Accessible Anther with longitudinal dehiscence and exposed outside the flower perianth Simpson 2010
Internal Anther with longitudinal dehiscence and inside the flower perianth, making access more difficult
Accessible secondary presentation Secondary pollen presentation with pollen exposed outside flower perianth Leins and Erbar 1990; De Araújo et al. 2014
Internal secondary presentation Secondary pollen presentation with pollen exposed inside flower perianth
Poricidal Type of anther dehiscence which access is limited to bees that can withdraw pollen through its vibration De Luca and Vallejo-Marín 2013
Pollinia Pollen packed into hard structure, making it unavailable as a resource and its access extremely specific to effective pollinators Johnson and Edwards 2000
Active Mechanism that needs to be triggered by legitimate pollinators to expose pollen Aluri and Reddi 1995
Attractive antherodes Presence of attractive antherodes that present little or no viable pollen, while true anthers are inconspicuous and loaded with viable pollen for effective pollinators Faden 1992
Heterostyly Species that present flowers with style at different heights in relation to anthers Lopes and Buzato 2005