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Table 1 Published data (from Fang and Wang 2011) to be recited for hypothesis testing and discussion in this study

From: A field experimental study on the impact of Acer platanoides, an urban tree invader, on forest ecosystem processes in North America

Fig. 1Canopy openness (%) and effective leaf area index in intact canopies and newly created gaps under various combinations of dominant tree types and canopy treatments.
Fig. 2Direct, diffuse, and total transmitted light in intact canopies and newly created gaps under various combinations of dominant tree types and canopy treatments.
Fig. 3Seedling height of Norway maple and red maple seedlings and relative height growth under different combinations of dominant tree type and canopy treatments over two growing seasons.
Fig. 4Type III regression of seedling relative height growth against canopy openness (%) in Norway maple and red maple seedlings.
Fig. 5Root, stem and leaf biomass of Norway maple and red maple seedlings grown under RMmix, NMmix and NMmon with intact canopies and gaps.
Fig. 6Percentage change in total biomass production of Norway maple and red maple seedlings under various tree types and canopy treatments.
Fig. 7Type III regression of biomass allocation against canopy openness (a, b) and biomass allocation of seedlings grown under three canopies (c, d).