Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptions of the selected landscape metrics. In this table, several metrics related to area and edge, shape, and aggregation categories have been presented that all of them measure landscape configuration aspects

From: Using the Lonsdorf model for estimating habitat loss and fragmentation effects on pollination service

Category Metric Equation Range
Area and edge Area-MN \( \frac{\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{x}_{ij}}{n_i} \) Area-MN > 0
ED \( \frac{\sum {e}_{ik}}{A}(10000) \) 0 ≤ ED, no limit
Shape PAFRAC \( \frac{\frac{2}{\left[\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{lnp}_{ij}-{lna}_{ij}\right]-\left[\left(\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{lnp}_{ij}\right)\left(\left(\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{lna}_{ij}\right)\right)\right]}}{\left(\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{lnp}_{ij}^2\right)-{\left(\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{lnp}_{ij}^2\right)}^2} \) 1 PAFRAC 2
Aggregation LSI \( \frac{0.25\sum {e}_{ik}}{\sqrt{A}} \) 1 ≤ LSI
DIVISION \( \left[1-\sum {\left(\frac{a_{ij}}{A}\right)}^2\right] \) 0 ≤ DIVISION ≥1
SPLIT \( \frac{A^2}{\sum \limits_{j=1}^n{a}_{ij}^2} \) 1 SPLIT number of cells in the landscape area squared
AI \( \left(\frac{g_{ii}}{\mathit{\max}\to {g}_{ii}}\right)(100) \) 0 ≤ AI ≥ 100
NP ni NP ≥ 1
ENN hij ENN > 0
  1. aij area (m2) of patch, A total landscape area (m2), ni number of class i patches in the landscape, eij total length (m) of edges of patch ij, including landscape boundary, c area (m2) within patch ij separated from its boundary by a user-specified buffer width (m), gii the number of adjacencies (contiguity) between pixels of patch class i, max gii maximum possible number of adjacencies among pixels of patches of class i, hij distance (m) from patch ij to the nearest neighboring patch of the same type (class), based on patch edge-to-edge distance, computed from cell center to cell center (McGarigal et al. 2002)