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Table 1 Water physicochemical variables of Jinshui River and Qi River

From: N2O emission and its influencing factors in subtropical streams, China

Sampling season River Sampling area Temp (°C) w-NO3− (mg L− 1) w-NH4(mg L− 1) DOC (mg L− 1) DOC/NO3
High flow season Jinshui River Downstream 28.72 ± 0.51a 0.94 ± 0.30 0.78 ± 0.19 7.67 ± 1.06b 9.10 ± 4.49
Midstream 25.23 ± 4.71a 1.03 ± 0.23 0.71 ± 0.11 8.63 ± 0.59a 10.45 ± 2.21
Upstream 16.04 ± 0.53b 1.15 ± 0.07 0.56 ± 0.03 10.61 ± 2.17a 11.32 ± 1.57
Qi River Downstream 32.07 ± 0.97a 1.44 ± 0.33 0.67 ± 0.19 7.12 ± 1.58 8.69 ± 2.55
Midstream 29.78 ± 1.05ab 1.09 ± 0.12 0.49 ± 0.05 7.45 ± 0.60 8.57 ± 1.18
Upstream 23.92 ± 5.58b 1.68 ± 0.52 0.67 ± 0.42 8.84 ± 0.76 7.66 ± 1.57
Normal flow season Jinshui River Downstream 8.73 ± 0.32a 1.23 ± 1.12 0.04 ± 0.00 7.49 ± 2.28a 10.08 ± 7.30
Midstream 7.58 ± 0.78b 0.60 ± 0.11 0.04 ± 0.01 5.02 ± 0.20ab 12.83 ± 1.91
Upstream 4.77 ± 0.42c 0.91 ± 0.08 0.04 ± 0.00 4.60 ± 0.48b 11.88 ± 0.54
Qi River Downstream 12.13 ± 1.37a 0.86 ± 0.38 0.04 ± 0.01 14.04 ± 4.34a 8.55 ± 16.95
Midstream 10.73 ± 0.50ab 1.28 ± 0.32 0.04 ± 0.01 9.84 ± 1.39ab 6.86 ± 2.77
Upstream 8.47 ± 1.99b 1.29 ± 0.72 0.04 ± 0.01 6.57 ± 0.55b 5.69 ± 2.38
Low flow season Jinshui River Downstream 10.43 ± 0.64a 0.50 ± 0.01c 0.38 ± 0.02 12.35 ± 0.54a 24.63 ± 0.84a
Midstream 7.66 ± 1.23b 0.59 ± 0.02b 0.32 ± 0.03 8.08 ± 0.62b 21.47 ± 1.61b
Upstream 4.34 ± 0.08c 0.91 ± 0.04a 0.47 ± 0.14 6.44 ± 0.07c 17.52 ± 0.29c
Qi River Downstream 9.87 ± 0.38 0.56 ± 0.26b 0.39 ± 0.09 26.28 ± 4.15a 13.76 ± 46.82
Midstream 9.79 ± 2.18 1.13 ± 0.18a 0.39 ± 0.02 20.81 ± 2.41ab 10.92 ± 1.51
Upstream 8.87 ± 1.88 0.84 ± 0.23a 0.42 ± 0.01 15.77 ± 1.17b 8.94 ± 5.35
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3); different letters indicate significant differences among sampling areas by linear mixed modeling (P < 0.05). Abbreviations: temperature is denoted by Temp, the NO3 and NH4+ concentration of water is denoted by w-NO3 and w-NH4+. The dissolved organic carbon concentration of water is denoted by DOC. The ratio of dissolved organic carbon to NO3 in water is denoted by DOC/NO3