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Table 9 The impacts of land use/land cover changes on the individual ecosystem service values (ESV) of Bahir Dar City between 1984 and 2019

From: The impacts of land-use and land-cover change on wetland ecosystem service values in peri-urban and urban area of Bahir Dar City, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Northwestern Ethiopia

SN Ecosystem services ESV across periods (USD in millions) Overall change
ESVf 1984 ESVf 1994 ESVf 2004 ESVf 2014 ESVf 2019 1984–2019
1 Provisioning services
 Water supply 2.64 2.38 2.29 2.17 1.87 − 0.76
 Food production 3.15 3.14 2.88 2.78 2.62 − 0.53
 Raw Material 1.04 0.99 0.89 0.79 0.71 − 0.33
 Genetic Resources 0.37 0.33 0.34 0.30 0.26 − 0.11
 Medicinal resources 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09 − 0.04
Sub-total 7.34 6.97 6.51 6.14 5.55 1.77
2 Regulating services
 Water regulation 7.40 6.54 6.18 5.66 4.64 − 2.76
 Waste treatment 5.72 5.55 4.77 4.33 4.01 − 1.71
 Erosion control 1.38 1.17 1.41 1.23 1.03 − 0.35
 Climate regulation 1.84 1.62 1.73 1.51 1.28 − 0.56
 Biological control 0.32 0.34 0.31 0.32 0.31 − 0.01
 Gas regulation 0.35 0.34 0.29 0.27 0.25 − 0.10
 Disturbance regulation 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 − 0.01
Sub-total 17.03 15.58 14.71 13.34 11.54 5.5
3 Supporting Services
 Nutrient cycling 1.27 1.11 1.25 1.10 0.94 − 0.33
 Pollination 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.15 − 0.03
 Soil formation 0.24 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.17 − 0.08
 Habitat/refugia 3.03 2.98 2.41 2.17 2.03 − 0.99
Sub-total 4.72 4.5 4.03 3.62 3.29 1.43
4 Cultural services
 Recreation 0.38 0.36 0.31 0.28 0.25 − 0.13
 Cultural 0.23 0.23 0.19 0.17 0.16 − 0.08
Sub-total 0.61 0.59 0.5 0.45 0.41 0.21
Total 29.71 27.65 25.75 23.54 20.80 8.90