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Table 2 Examples of the minimum number of individuals (trees) and software used in spatial point-pattern analyses. Most studies used a very low number of trees in SPPA which does not correspond to the recommendations provided by the main textbooks related to SPPA

From: Spatial point-pattern analysis as a powerful tool in identifying pattern-process relationships in plant ecology: an updated review

Summary statistics Number of
Software References
K(r) and Moran’s correlograms
L(r) and L12(r)
g(r) and g12(r)
> 15 Spatial Analysis (Duncan 1995)
SPPA (Haase 2001)
Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004)
Camarero et al. 2000
Lingua et al. 2008
Carrer et al. 2013
L(r) and L12(r) ≥ 26 ADE-4 (Thioulouse et al. 1997) Camarero et al. 2005
kmm(r) ≥ 100 R (R Development Core Team) Getzin et al. 2008a
L(r) ≥ 60 SPPA (Haase 2004) Szmyt 2010
≥ 25 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004)
R (R Development Core Team)
Petritan et al. 2015
Du et al. 2017
g(r) and g12(r) ≥ 10 R (R Development Core Team) Janík et al. 2016
O12(r) ≥ 4 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004) Cordero et al. 2016
L(r) and L12(r)
g(r), kmm(r) and γ(r)
g(r) and g12(r)
≥ 20 SPPA (Haase 2002)
Not specified
R (R Development Core Team)
Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004)
Fajardo et al. 2006
Zenner and Peck 2009
Fibich et al. 2016
Ziegler et al. 2017
L12(r) and g12(r) > 30 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004) Muvengwi et al. 2018
g(r), g12(r) and g21(r)
g(r) and g12(r)
≥ 30 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2014)
R (R Development Core Team)
Nguyen et al. 2016
Li et al. 2020a
g(r), kmm(r) and γ(r)
≥ 40 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2004, 2014) and R (R Development Core Team)
R (R Development Core Team)
Yao et al. 2016; Das Gupta and Pinno 2018
Li et al. 2020b
g(r) ≥ 68 R (R Development Core Team) Carrer et al. 2018
g12(r), km. (r) ≥ 50 Programita (Wiegand and Moloney 2014) Ribeiro et al. 2021
  1. K(r) univariate Ripley’s K-function, L(r) univariate Ripley’s L-function, g(r) univariate pair correlation function, kmm(r) mark-correlation function, L12(r) bivariate Ripley’s L-function, g12(r) bivariate pair correlation function, O12(r) bivariate O-ring statistic, γ(r) mark variogram, km. (r) bivariate r-mark correlation function