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Table 3 A summary of the effects of the conversion of primary forest to pastures and ranches on the downstream riverine and estuarine water properties. The arrows before the water properties indicate that the subsequent water properties increased (↑), decreased (↓), or did not change (→). See the list of abbreviations for the water properties

From: The impact of tropical land-use change on downstream riverine and estuarine water properties and biogeochemical cycles: a review

Study sites Effects on downstream water properties Sources
Rayu River, Sarawak, Malaysia →: pH, NO3, NO2, NH4+, PO43− Iwata et al. (2003)
Rivers, Queensland, Australia ↑: PON, NO3 Furnas (2003)
Rondônia, Amazon Basin, Brazil ↑: TDN, TDP, PP Biggs et al. (2004)
  ↑: SS, POC, PON, DON, PO43−
→: TDN, NH4+
Neill et al. (2001)
  ↑: SS, POC, PON, NH4+, PO43−, Chl a
↓: NO3, DO
Thomas et al. (2004)
  ↓: NO3, DIN:DIP, DO Neill et al. (2006)
  ↑: SS, NH4+, PO43−
Deegan et al. (2011)
Paragominas streams, Pará, Brazil ↑: pH, DO
↓: NO3
Figueiredo et al. (2010)
Novo Progresso (Amazon) and Campo Verde (Cerrado), Brazil ↑: TOC, DOC, TN, NO3 Nóbrega et al. (2018)
Sarapuí River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil ↑: SS, turbidity, TP
→: TN
de Mello et al. (2018a)
Sixaola River streams, Limón, Costa Rica ↑: Chl a Lorion and Kennedy (2009)
Veraguas rivers and estuaries, Panama ↑: SS, Chl a
→: PO43−
↓: NO3, NH4+, DIN:DIP
Valiela et al. (2013, 2014)
Streams, Puerto Rico ↑: Turbidity, TN, TP
→: DO
Uriarte et al. (2011)