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Table 4 A summary of the effects of agriculture on the downstream riverine and estuarine water properties. When most minerals (e.g., Na+, Mg2+, Cl, K+, Ca2+) increased, they were collectively described as EC increased. The arrows before the water properties indicate that the subsequent water properties increased (↑), decreased (↓), or did not change (→). See the list of abbreviations for the water properties

From: The impact of tropical land-use change on downstream riverine and estuarine water properties and biogeochemical cycles: a review

Study sites Effects on downstream water properties Sources
Jambi estuary rivers, Sumatra, Indonesia ↑: SS, TOC Sanderson and Taylor (2003)
Streams at the Petapahan area, Sumatra, Indonesia →: DIN, TP Comte et al. (2015)
Rivers at Sibu and Tatau, Sarawak, Malaysia ↑: COD, NH4+
↓: pH, DO
Gandaseca et al. (2015)
Rajang River, Sarawak, Malaysia ↑: SS
↓: pCO2
Müller-Dum et al. (2019)
Sundar River, Sarawak, Malaysia ↑: EC, turbidity, NH4+, COD Rosli et al. (2020)
Groundwater at Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia ↑: NH4+
→: NO3
Ah Tung et al. (2009)
Buyhang watershed streams, Leyte, Philippines ↑: Turbidity
↓: NO3, PO43−
Dessie and Bredemeier (2013)
Surface runoff at Sangara and Dami, Papua New Guinea ↑: NH4+
→: NO3
Banabas et al. (2008)
Tully River, Queensland, Australia ↑: SS, PON, NO3, PO43−
Mitchell et al. (2001), Furnas (2003)
Tully and Murray Rivers, Granite Creek, Queensland, Australia ↑: SS, TN, TP Faithful and Finlayson (2005)
Herbert River, Queensland, Australia ↑: SS, TN, TP Bramley and Roth (2002), Mitchell et al. (1997)
Cudgen Catchment, New South Wales, Australia ↑: pH
↓: pCO2
Jeffrey et al. (2016)
Kallada River and Ashtamudi estuary, Kerala, India ↑: SS, NO3, PO43−
Jennerjahn et al. (2008)
Nawuni Catchment, Ghana ↑: Turbidity, NH4+ Tahiru et al. (2020)
Federal District streams, Brasilia, Brazil ↑: EC, NO3, NO2, NH4+
→: DON, PO43−
↓: DO
Silva et al. (2011)
Tanguro Ranch, Mat Gross, Brazil ↑: EC, SS, DOC, NH4+, PO43− Riskin et al. (2017)
Paragominas streams, Pará, Brazil ↑: EC, pH, turbidity, NO3
→: PO43−
↓: DO
Figueiredo et al. (2010)
Sarapuí River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil ↑: SS, turbidity, POM, TN, TP De Mello et al. (2018a, b)
Streams, Puerto Rico ↑: DO, TP Uriarte et al. (2011)