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Table 2 Individual ecosystem service value coefficients (US $ ha–1 year–1) for the five representative biomes based on the modified estimates of Kindu et al. (2016)

From: Changes in ecosystem service values strongly influenced by human activities in contrasting agro-ecological environments

Ecosystem services

Each LULC classes ecosystem service values (US$ ha–1 year–1)

Natural forest

Plantation forest

Cropland

Grasslands

Tree patches

Provisioning services

 Water supply

8.0

8.0

 Food production

32.0

32.0

187.6

117.5

117.5

 Raw material

51.2

51.2

 Genetic resources

41.0

41.0

Regulating services

 Water regulation

6.0

6.0

3.0

3.0

 Water treatment

136.0

136.0

87.0

87.0

 Erosion control

245.0

245.0

29.0

29.0

 Climate regulation

223.0

223.0

 Biological control

24.0

23.0

23.0

 Gas regulation

13.7

13.7

7.0

7.0

 Disturbance regulation

5.0

5.0

Supporting services

 Nutrient cycling

184.4

184.4

 Pollination

7.3

7.3

14.0

25.0

25.0

 Soil formation

10.0

10.0

1.0

1.0

 Habitat/refugia

17.3

17.3

Cultural services

 Recreation

4.8

4.8

0.8

0.8

 Cultural

2.0

2.0

Total

986.7

986.7

225.6

293.3

293.3