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Table 2 Individual ecosystem service value coefficients (US $ ha–1 year–1) for the five representative biomes based on the modified estimates of Kindu et al. (2016)

From: Changes in ecosystem service values strongly influenced by human activities in contrasting agro-ecological environments

Ecosystem services Each LULC classes ecosystem service values (US$ ha–1 year–1)
Natural forest Plantation forest Cropland Grasslands Tree patches
Provisioning services
 Water supply 8.0 8.0
 Food production 32.0 32.0 187.6 117.5 117.5
 Raw material 51.2 51.2
 Genetic resources 41.0 41.0
Regulating services
 Water regulation 6.0 6.0 3.0 3.0
 Water treatment 136.0 136.0 87.0 87.0
 Erosion control 245.0 245.0 29.0 29.0
 Climate regulation 223.0 223.0
 Biological control 24.0 23.0 23.0
 Gas regulation 13.7 13.7 7.0 7.0
 Disturbance regulation 5.0 5.0
Supporting services
 Nutrient cycling 184.4 184.4
 Pollination 7.3 7.3 14.0 25.0 25.0
 Soil formation 10.0 10.0 1.0 1.0
 Habitat/refugia 17.3 17.3
Cultural services
 Recreation 4.8 4.8 0.8 0.8
 Cultural 2.0 2.0
Total 986.7 986.7 225.6 293.3 293.3